The MIND Diet: How to Eat for a Healthy Mind (+ 42 Recipes)
Created by Deane Alban | Reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC
Last updated on June 1, 2019
The MIND diet is a new brain-healthy diet that helps reduce Alzheimer’s risk while boosting overall cognitive and mental health. Learn how, start now.
What Will I Learn in This Article?
There’s exciting news about a new diet known as the MIND diet.
The findings of a large clinical study show great promise for this diet’s cognitive and mental health benefits, especially in regards to Alzheimer’s disease.
Finding the key to preventing and treating Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most pressing medical needs of our time.
Alzheimer’s is currently the sixth leading cause of death and is the only top 10 cause that cannot be prevented, adequately treated, or cured. (1)
But now the MIND diet has shown that it can significantly reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.
How to Get the Most from This Guide
In this guide, we’ll take a closer look at exactly what the MIND diet is and why researchers are hopeful about it.
This diet is NOT just for seniors — it’s for anyone who wants better thinking, focus, and productivity now.
Finally, we’ll give you all the information you need to implement this way of eating, including dozens of delicious MIND diet recipes.
What Is the MIND Diet?
The MIND diet is a fusion of two diets considered to be among the most healthy, the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet.
The Mediterranean diet is one of the most popular and widely researched ways of eating.
It emphasizes vegetables, fruits, nuts, fish, olive oil, and red wine.
The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) was developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for treating high blood pressure.
It also revolves around eating whole grains, vegetables, and fruits, but one of the ways it differs is that it is a low-sodium diet.
A research team at Chicago’s Rush University Medical Center set out to combine the best of both diets into one and prove, or disprove, its ability to prevent Alzheimer’s.
Originally it was called the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay diet, but was thankfully shortened to the MIND diet.
The MIND Diet: What the Research Shows
To gather data for this diet, researchers reviewed the diets of volunteers already enrolled in the Rush Memory and Aging Project which had been studying seniors in Chicago since 1997. (2)
Over 900 people between the ages of 58 and 98 were tracked. (3)
Questionnaires were used to assess participants’ diets and neurological testing was done to monitor their cognitive health.
The study, which was published in 2015, found that those who rigorously followed the MIND diet reduced their risk for Alzheimer’s by an impressive 53%.
One of the surprising findings was that participants did not have to follow the diet strictly to get significant benefits.
Even those who made modest changes to their diets still reduced their Alzheimer’s risk by 35%.
However, the longer and more closely the MIND diet was followed, the better the outcome.
Those who most closely followed the diet’s recommendations had brains equivalent to someone 7.5 years younger.
How the MIND Diet Compares to Similar Diets
Not all Rush Memory and Aging Project study participants followed the MIND diet.
Some followed a Mediterranean diet, while others followed the DASH diet.
Those who followed the Mediterranean diet showed a 54% reduction in the risk of Alzheimer’s — a slight improvement over the MIND diet. (4)
But the MIND diet was considered most effective overall since it helped even when not followed exactly, which was not the case with the Mediterranean diet.
The DASH diet came in third with a 39% reduction in risk of Alzheimer’s.
The MIND Diet Principles
Following the core principles of the MIND diet won’t just help protect you against Alzheimer’s, it will help you boost and maintain good brain health and function now.
The principles behind the MIND diet are pretty simple.
Foods are divided into two groups — those to include in your diet and those to avoid or minimize. (5)
Here’s a list of both sets of recommendations.
10 Groups of Foods to Include in the MIND Diet
- Whole grains — 3 or more servings per day
- Green leafy vegetables — 6 servings per week
- Other vegetables — 1 serving per day
- Nuts — 5 servings per week
- Berries — 2 or more servings per week
- Beans or legumes — 3 or more servings per week
- Fish — 1 or more serving per week
- Poultry — 2 or more servings per week
- Wine — 1 serving per day
- Olive oil — use as the main cooking oil
5 Groups of Foods to Minimize in the MIND Diet
- Pastries and sweets — less than 5 servings per week
- Red meat — less than 4 servings per week
- Cheese — less than 1 serving per week
- Fried or fast food — less than 1 serving per week
- Butter and margarine — less than 1 tablespoon per day
This graphic from Canadian Living illustrates these principles visually.
Eating according to the MIND diet
How the MIND Diet Protects Against Alzheimer’s
Obviously, eating more veggies and fewer pastries is a good health move, but the mechanism of risk reduction with the MIND diet is unclear.
Here are some of the most likely explanations for why it inhibits mental decline.
The MIND Diet Is High in Brain-Protective Vitamins
A diet high in plant-based foods will be high in the vitamins needed to help prevent cognitive impairment.
Separately, both vitamins C and E are antioxidants which protect the brain from free radical damage, but together these vitamins have a powerful synergistic effect.
A large study confirmed that vitamin C combined with vitamin E can prevent memory loss and lower the risk for Alzheimer’s and dementia by 60%. (6)
Vitamin C acts as a powerful detoxifier that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to remove metals like aluminum, long been suspected of contributing to Alzheimer’s, from the brain. (7, 8)
An Oxford University study found that vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which are abundant in green leafy vegetables, work together to reduce brain atrophy, improve brain function, and dramatically reduce brain shrinkage in the region of the brain most affected by Alzheimer’s. (9)
Vitamin K, another vitamin found mainly in green vegetables, is also believed to play a role in preventing Alzheimer’s. (10)
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The MIND Diet Makes Berries a Top Priority
Unlike the Mediterranean and DASH diets, the MIND diet stresses the importance of eating berries as opposed to other kinds of fruit.
Berries of all kinds, especially blueberries and strawberries, are the only fruits proven in studies to decrease neuron loss and improve memory. (11)
Flavonoids in berries have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which address two suspected underlying causes of Alzheimer’s. (12)
Flavonoids called anthocyanins are responsible for berries’ beautiful colors and are linked to the improvement of a wide range of cognitive skills. (13)
Berries also contain phytonutrients that clear the brain of toxic proteins believed to contribute to Alzheimer’s. (14)
The MIND Diet Recommends Eating Fish
Fish is an excellent source of vitamin B12 and omega-3 essential fatty acids.
A deficiency of B12 affects 40% of all adults and is a particular problem for seniors. (15, 16)
Long-term B12 deficiency can contribute to nerve damage, brain atrophy, dementia, and Alzheimer’s. (17)
Omega-3 essential fatty acids are essential for brain health and function.
One particular omega-3, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), is a major building block of the brain.
It protects against age-related mental decline and lowers the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s. (18, 19)
The MIND Diet Minimizes Sugar, Trans Fats, and Fast Food
When you reduce your consumption of sweets and fast food as suggested in the MIND diet, you will automatically reduce the amount of sugar and trans fats you consume.
And that is great news for your brain.
Excess consumption of refined carbohydrates such as sugar, high fructose corn syrup, and white flour contributes to insulin resistance and diabetes.
Even in the earliest stages of Alzheimer’s, the brain’s ability to metabolize glucose, its main source of energy, is compromised.
Insulin becomes less effective in helping the brain take up sugar from the blood and brain cells start to starve to death. (20)
Alzheimer’s disease is now considered by some researchers to be a third form of diabetes. (21)
Trans fats are the kind found in hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils.
These dangerous fats have been linked to many of the most deadly diseases including heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. (22, 23)
Even a moderate intake of trans fats can double your risk for Alzheimer’s. (24)
Many countries have already banned trans fats.
In the US, the Food and Drug Administration has given food manufacturers until June, 2018 to remove them from fast food and processed foods. (25)
The MIND diet recommends you shelve polyunsaturated vegetable oils like canola, safflower, and soy oil.
These oils are processed with heat and chemicals which create trans fats before you’ve even opened the bottle. (26)
One study found that store-bought canola oil contained up to 4.2% trans fats. (27)
Use olive oil instead.
MIND Diet Recipes
The guidelines for the MIND diet are rather straightforward, but unfortunately there aren’t too many places to find MIND diet recipes online.
So I contacted some of our favorite brain health experts, bloggers, and cookbook authors for their favorite recipes that meet MIND diet specifications.
We’ve compiled over 40 recipes and loosely sorted them into four categories — breakfast, side dishes, main courses, and snacks and desserts.
But there’s no reason you can’t eat a side dish or two for dinner or have a snack for breakfast.
Most recipes below link to the original recipe on the contributor’s website.
A few are not found anywhere else online and are published in their entirety here.
Below each recipe link, you’ll see the key ingredients that make it good for your brain.
Besides MIND diet-friendly foods, we’ve also included foods known to be specifically brain-healthy such as chocolate, coconut, avocado, and fermented foods.
MIND Diet Breakfast Recipes
After a night of rest, your brain needs high-quality fuel to get it charged and ready for the day.
Here’s more than a week’s worth of breakfast recipes that will help you start the morning right.
almond milk, walnuts, blueberries, coconut flour
buckwheat flour, almond milk, coconut oil, berries
eggs, chicken, olive oil, red bell peppers
blueberries, cocoa powder
oatmeal, black currants, walnuts
oats, strawberries, yogurt
celery, cucumber, cilantro, Swiss chard, ginger
quinoa, walnuts, berries, yogurt
kale, chard, spinach, red pepper, eggs
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MIND Diet Side Dish Recipes
These side dishes range from soups to salads.
They can accompany your main course at dinner or make an excellent lunch or light dinner on their own.
arugula, walnuts, endive, strawberries
barley, tomatoes, onion, fennel, artichoke hearts
olive oil, basil, pine nuts
broccoli, olive oil
cucumber, avocado, green onion
dino kale, red onion, pumpkin seeds
cauliflower, olive oil, turmeric
bulgur wheat, green onions, tomatoes, olive oil
kale, anchovies, olive oil
wild rice, brown rice, goji berries
quinoa, kale, olive oil
asparagus, arugula, hazelnuts, olive oil
brown rice, mung beans, variety of vegetables
red cabbage, mixed greens, cashews
The next recipe was contributed by Max Lugavere, director of the upcoming documentary Bread Head which explores the impact of diet and lifestyle on brain health.
You may have seen Max on the Dr. Oz show where he is a recurring “core expert.”
This recipe doesn’t have any cheese in it — but it tastes like it does!
Kale Salad of “Cheesy” Epicness
Max says, “I love this simple salad because it combines a ton of brain-optimizing nutrients, such as carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, flavonoids like luteolin, and lots of prebiotic fiber. It is also spicy, savory, and delicious.”
- 4 cups of organic kale
- 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil
- 3 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar
- 1/2 tablespoon seasoned salt (I like Real Salt Organic Seasoned Salt)
- 3 tablespoons Nutritional Yeast (for non-vegans, I prefer Sari Foods because their yeast is unfortified. For vegans who may be at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, regular nutritional yeast is fine)
- 1 half organic red bell pepper, diced
- 1/3 cup organic broccoli sprouts
Combine everything in one bowl and toss well.
MIND Diet Main Course Recipes
According to MIND diet recommendations, you should be eating legumes three times per week, poultry twice, and seafood at least once.
Here are a few recipes featuring each of these protein sources.
white lentils, green onions, basil, zucchini, sunflower seeds
black eyed peas, tomato, fennel, onion, olive oil
white beans, mixed green vegetables, rosemary
turkey, olive oil, cranberries
chicken, olives, olive oil, artichoke hearts
salmon, walnuts, olive oil
mussels, white wine, tomatoes, kale, pine nuts
salmon, olives, fennel, pomegranate, walnuts
salmon, spinach, nuts
cod, ginger, olive oil
Lastly, we have a recipe from neurologist and bestselling author Dr. David Perlmutter.
This recipe is reprinted here with permission from his latest book The Grain Brain Whole Life Plan.
Steamed Wild Salmon with Sautéed Leeks and Chard
The sautéed chard makes a colorful base for the pink salmon, but you can use almost any green that is in season. In the spring dandelion greens will give a slightly bitter contrast to the rich, succulent fish.
- 2 tablespoons melted unsalted butter, preferably from grass-fed cows
- Four 6-ounce skinless, boneless wild salmon fillets
- Sea salt and freshly ground pepper
- 8 thin slices lemon
- 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil plus more for drizzling
- 2 cups finely sliced leeks, white part only
- 6 cups chopped rainbow chard, tough ends removed
Preheat the oven to 450°F.
Place a wire rack large enough to hold the salmon in a rimmed baking sheet. Set aside.
Cut four 10-inch by 10-inch pieces of aluminum foil. Using a pastry brush, lightly coat the foil with melted butter. Set aside.
Lightly season the salmon with salt and freshly ground pepper. Place a slice of lemon on each piece of foil, top with a piece of seasoned salmon, and top the salmon with another slice of lemon. Tightly wrap each foil by folding in the seam and twisting the ends together. Place the wrapped salmon pieces on the rack in the prepared baking sheet.
Place in the preheated oven and allow to steam in the foil for about 8 minutes or just until the fish is slightly underdone in the center.
While the salmon is steaming, heat the olive oil in a large sauté pan over medium-high heat. Add the leeks and sauté for about 4 minutes or until soft, but not colored. Add the chard and, using tongs, cook, tossing and turning, for about 4 more minutes or until the leeks and chard are tender. Season with salt and pepper and remove from the heat. Tent lightly with aluminum foil.
Remove the salmon from the oven and carefully open the foil packets. Be cautious as the steam will be very hot.
Spoon an equal portion of the chard mixture in the center of each of four dinner plates. Place a piece of steamed salmon on top of each chard mound. Drizzle with extra virgin olive oil and serve immediately.
MIND Diet Snack and Dessert Recipes
Of course you can grab healthy snacks that don’t need a recipe — fruit, nuts, raw veggies, and such.
But that can get a little dull.
Here you’ll find brain-healthy versions of everyone’s favorite snacks — cookies, dips, ice cream, and more.
eggplant, tahini, olive oil
coconut, almonds, ginger
raspberries, dark chocolate, coconut milk
olive oil, sesame seeds, tahini, whole wheat
chickpeas, olive oil
walnuts, almonds, cashews, coconut, cacao nibs, goji berries
Limitations of the MIND Diet
The benefits of the MIND diet are obvious.
It shows that what you eat can have an impact on your risk of Alzheimer’s.
As these delicious recipes demonstrate, it’s no hardship to follow.
Plus, you don’t have to stick to it perfectly to reap its rewards.
But there are some limitations to this diet.
No one, not even the research team behind the MIND diet, is suggesting that diet alone will prevent Alzheimer’s. (28)
The MIND diet’s lead study author, Dr. Martha Clare Morris, admits that diet is just one of many factors in the development of this disease.
Genetics and, very importantly, other lifestyle factors like smoking, exercise, and education also play a role.
She readily acknowledges that the MIND diet is a very promising start, but more research needs to be done. (29)
She fully expects that modifications will be made to the diet as the body of knowledge on the effects of diet on the brain grows.
One big problem with this study was that it relied on study participants honestly and accurately reporting what they ate.
It’s well known that people tend to underestimate how much bad food they consume and overestimate how much healthy food they eat.
Lastly, the MIND diet did not yield a significant improvement over the Mediterranean diet.
In fact, when followed correctly, the Mediterranean diet provided slightly more protection against Alzheimer’s. (30)
6 Suggested Upgrades to the MIND Diet
The MIND diet is clearly a big step in the right direction away from the standard American diet which is loaded with processed foods.
But it’s still very much a work in progress.
Here are six evidence-based changes that we hope will be incorporated into the MIND diet in future studies.
Meanwhile, there’s no reason you can’t upgrade your own diet and make these changes now.
1. Less Emphasis on Whole Wheat
Whole wheat is the most common whole grain, but it’s at the bottom of our list of grains for several reasons.
Bread, even when it’s made from whole wheat, has a glycemic index equal to that of white sugar. (31, 32)
Most people find that wheat stimulates their appetite and few of us need that! (33)
Wheat can worsen symptoms of certain brain disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and ADHD. (34, 35, 36)
Instead, try some of the other whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, buckwheat, millet, oats, quinoa, rye, and wild rice. (37)
Even popcorn, one of America’s favorite snacks, qualifies as a whole grain.
A tip for eating less wheat is to substitute almond flour or coconut flour in recipes that call for wheat flour.
2. More Emphasis on Healthy Fats
Coconut oil, avocado, and eggs should be added to the list of foods to include in your diet.
Your brain is largely made of fat and these foods provide the building blocks needed to create healthy brain cells.
And what’s margarine doing on the MIND Diet list?
It’s loaded with unhealthy trans fats and should be avoided completely. (38)
Swap it out for butter or coconut oil which may reduce the beta-amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer’s. (39)
And while we approve of the MIND diet’s inclusion of olive oil, it needs to be specified that it must be extra virgin olive oil.
Olive oil fraud is rampant and not all olive oils provide equal health benefits.
It’s worth buying the highest quality extra virgin olive oil you can find.
3. More Emphasis on Cold-Water, Fatty Fish
Fish is widely considered to be a brain food, but not all fish are equally good for your brain.
Only fatty fish caught in cold waters contain substantial amounts of omega-3 essential fatty acids.
The best fish for your brain are salmon, herring, mackerel, halibut, and sardines. (40)
4. Include Fermented Foods
Fermented foods contain natural psychobiotics — live bacteria that offer mental health benefits.
Virtually all healthy traditional diets include fermented foods. (41)
Look for yogurt or kefir that contains live cultures, traditionally fermented soy products, and unpasteurized sauerkraut and pickled vegetables.
5. Include the Spice Turmeric
Turmeric, the golden spice found in curry powder, has been linked to low levels of Alzheimer’s. (42)
It’s believed to be one of the reasons that the Alzheimer’s rate in India is less than one-quarter of that in the United States.
Curcumin, the main active compound in turmeric, has been shown to break up the beta-amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients.
6. Exclude Artificial Sweeteners
There is no specific mention of artificial sweeteners in the MIND diet, but the DASH diet allows the use of artificial sweeteners in moderation. (43)
But the use of chemical sweeteners is highly controversial and until more is known about their long-term effects on the brain, I suggest you avoid them.
Instead, you can use stevia, a non-caloric sweetener that comes from a plant instead of a laboratory.
MIND Diet Resources
We hope these recipes inspire you to start cooking with your brain health in mind.
For more, we recommend that you check out these books and blogs from our recipe contributors.
You’ll find more great MIND diet-friendly recipes and additional information on how to keep your brain sharp for life.
BrainHQ is an online brain training program created by an international team of neuroscientists.
They also have a great selection of brain-healthy recipes.
Dr. David Jockers
At DrJockers.com, you’ll find recipes along with numerous free ebooks and handouts on various health topics including brain health.
David Jockers, DNM, DC, MS is the author of SuperCharge Your Brain.
Dr. Mark Hyman
You’ll find literally hundreds of recipes on his blog.
The Blue Zones was a New York Times bestseller about places in the world where people live unusually long and productive lives.
On the book’s companion blog BlueZones.com, you’ll find free online recipes that follow the Blue Zones Guidelines for longevity.
Rebecca Katz is an accomplished chef who has worked with the country’s top wellness leaders, including Drs. Andrew Weil, Deepak Chopra, and Dean Ornish.
You’ll find hundreds of recipes on her website.
Maggie Moon, MS, RDN, is uniquely qualified to write a MIND diet cookbook.
She is a registered dietitian nutritionist and has culinary school training.
You’ll also find many delicious recipes on her website MIND Diet Meals.
Walnuts.org is the place to learn about eating and using walnuts.
Oldways is a nonproﬁt organization that seeks to inspire healthy eating through cultural food traditions.
They are well known for creating the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.
This is the go-to place for everything you need to know about implementing and enjoying the Mediterranean way of eating.
Dr. Drew Ramsey
Drew Ramsey, MD is one of psychiatry’s leading proponents of using diet to help balance moods, sharpen brain function and improve mental health.
You can learn more about using food to improve mental health at DrewRamseyMD.com.
Chronic inflammation has been linked to Alzheimer’s as well as many other brain disorders and autoimmune diseases.
At Supercharged Food, you’ll learn how to use food to turn down the flame of inflammation.
You’ll find hundreds of recipes that are gluten, wheat, dairy, yeast and sugar free.
Olive Oil Source
If you’ve ever wondered how to find a good olive oil or how to use it in cooking, visit OliveOilSource.com.
It’s one of the most comprehensive sources on the web for everything related to olive oil.
When you are ready to move beyond pouring olive oil on your salad, check out their creative culinary uses for olive oil.
The MIND Diet: Take the Next Step
The MIND diet combines the basic tenets of two very healthy diets, the Mediterranean diet and the DASH diet.
Research shows that following the MIND diet rigorously can significantly reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease and that following it even partially still provides worthwhile benefits.
Our understanding of dietary influences on Alzheimer’s disease is in its infancy and there is no ultimate anti-Alzheimer’s diet yet.
Better recommendations will almost certainly be forthcoming as science learns more about how diet affects and protects the brain.
For now, there is one basic principle on which all the experts agree:
Eat more whole foods and fewer processed ones.
This one piece of advice is so important for anyone, at any age, who wants to have better cognitive and mental health.
Follow this core concept behind the MIND diet to help boost and maintain good brain health and fitness, both now and in the future.
We understand that it’s not always possible to eat right for your brain.
That’s why we recommend Mind Lab Pro® — a “universal” brain supplement that contains 11 brain-enhancing ingredients that work together to improve brain health and function.
WE’D LIKE TO HEAR FROM YOU
To start a new thread, use the comment form at the bottom of the page.
Vegetarian options ?? (No fish / poultry)
Deane Alban says
Hi Marxie, Please see the “legume” main course and”side dish” recipes. You’ll find lots of vegetarian options among these.
I would love a hard-copy of this article plus the recipes written out in the one volume. Is there a book that has all this? I want to get off the internet as much as possible and simply printing out the article will not yield the written out recipes without clicking each link separately. What’s a girl to do?
Deane Alban says
Hi Tamara, We’re pleased that you find this information print-worthy. While there are free programs that will turn any webpage into a PDF (you can google for one) that won’t help you with the recipe links. You might want to pick up one of the recipe books from a contributing author such as the one by Maggie Moon or Rebecca Katz. I’m with you — I like hard copy recipes to cook from as well!
I recently heard about the Mind Diet and reading up difference articles it says it helps prevents Alzheimer’s disease. I am interested in doing this diet with my mom to see if it can help her because she was diagnosed back in July 2017.
Deane Alban says
Hi Silvia, I’m so sorry to hear about your mother. I hope you find something here that can help you implement the MIND Diet.
Saw our doctor yesterday and she highly recommended we use the MIND diet. I am almost 74 and my husband is 80 and we are a bit overweight and starting to have some memory problems. We are going to try it and see how it works.
Deane Alban says
Hi Carole, Sounds like you have a forward-thinking doctor. I hope you find some recipes here to help get you started.
Suzanne McGlashan says
I found this site extremely informative and useful. Thank you. I plan on planning for and starting the MIND Diet in the New Year.
Deane Alban says
Hi Suzanne, We’re delighted to hear that we’ve helped you take action! 🙂
This site was informative and easy to use. I especially appreciated the Resources section.
Deane Alban says
Hi Lori, Thank you — we’re glad you found us!
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