Karate Combat Karateka: Jerome Brown

jerome brown, karate, karate league, full contact karate, premier karate league, international events

Jerome Brown

British Team Member 7 years // 4x British National Champion // Silver European Championships Cadets

Wins-Losses-Ties
6 FT 2 INS / 188 CM
174 LBS / 79 KG
32 INS / 82 CM
43 INS / 108 CM
Weight Class
Welterweight (165 LB / 75 KG)
Karate Style
Favorite Technique
Sweeps and Takedowns

Jerome Romeo Brown is an English-born fighter of Jamaican descent from north London. Jerome faced trials and tribulations growing up in a part of London with lots of crime. It served to motivate him to get out of his tough situation. Studying karate became an escape route as it grounded him and kept him away from a lot of negative elements. However, Jerome felt somewhat unfulfilled competing in point-based karate until Karate Combat came along. The full-contact aspect of Karate Combat allows him to show his true heart, grit & determination to win, no matter what. Jerome has pledged to keep fighting for a better life for himself and for his family’s legacy.

// DNA Info by

Exercise Recovery

Food Breakdown

Food Sensitivity

Hunger and Weight

Joint Health

Metabolism

Muscle Strength

Power Performance

TRHR – Gifted (TT)

This gene has a role in skeletal muscle development and controlling lean muscle mass. This is a rare result and occurs in 25% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this result may have more lean body mass and greater power relative to body size. With regular training people like you can develop and build upon this genetic advantage. Elite athletes are commonly found with this result.

Workout programs that develop traditional professional sports abilities would be in alignment with an individual with this result.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene TRHR encodes for the protein called thyrotrophin releasing hormone receptor. TRHR controls the levels of thyroxin which has a role in skeletal muscle health. Polymorphisms in TRHR are associated with the amount of lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle health. This gene is associated with the amount of LBM and muscle strength.

NMB – Adapt (TT)

This is the rare type found in only 6% of the population. Studies have found that with this variant, you may have trouble knowing when to stop eating. This may lead to a higher risk of weight gain and obesity. If you struggle with weight and the ability to recognize satiety, you may need a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist to make a structured meal plan as guidance for meal size and frequency based on your personal needs and goals.

Analysis of the NMB gene will reveal if an individual has the ability to receive the appropriate signals of “fullness” to indicate to stop eating (and therefore has a role in regaining weight over time). Studies have found that variants determine how soon you get full during eating.

VEGF – Gifted (CC)

This result is associated with better blood vessel development. This is particularly important during high levels of exercise. As a result, people with this result may find they are good at aerobic exercise and have greater endurance.

People with this result can engage in a variety of workout plans with less burning and soreness after working out. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VEGF codes for the protein called vascular endothelial growth factor. VEGF is very important for blood vessel growth to support muscle health. The ability to increase the amount of blood supply during exercise will increase your maximal oxygen consumption and muscle performance. Genetic polymorphisms in VEGF are associated with endurance and recovery from intense exercise. This test is associated with higher aerobic exercise performance and greater endurance.

NBPF3 – Adapt (CC)

40% of the population have this genotype that is associated with lower levels of Vitamin B6. This is likely due to higher clearance of Vitamin B6 from your body. Severe shortage of Vitamin B6 can lead to serious health issues. It’s important to eat foods that have high sources of Vitamin B6 such as fish, meat, whole grains, nuts and fruit and discuss with your Doctor if supplementation is needed.

Analysis of this gene reveals an individual’s likelihood of having higher or lower vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group, mainly serving as a coenzyme in many enzyme reactions in amino acids, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Early Vitamin B6 deficiency can be related to irritability, depression, insomnia and anxiety. More severe deficiencies can be related to nausea, vomiting and convulsions. Vitamin B6 can be found in nutritional supplements, nutritional yeasts, potatoes, wheat germ, legumes, meat, bananas and fortified cereals.

MTHFR – Adapt (GA)

35% of the population are GA. You may have reduced levels of folate (65% of normal) and therefore should make sure you eat enough folate rich foods such as lentils, beans, asparagus, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, and beets and may consider an additional folate supplement, as needed and discusssed with your doctor.

Individuals will learn if they are likely to have reduced levels of folate with the results of the analysis of this gene. This gene makes an enzyme that changes the folate you eat in your diet to an active form your body can use. Folate is extremely important during the development of the brain and therefore important during pregnancy. Folate, one of the B vitamins, is also found to be protective of heart disease. Folate is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolize amino acids which are required for cell division. Humans cannot make folate and therefore is required from the diet. Folate is most commonly found in nutritional supplements, vitamin-fortified cereals, wheat germ, legumes, green leafy vegetables, seeds and liver.

AKT1 – Adapt (CC)

You are among 20% of the population. With this result, you may have an increased risk of temporary psychosis from cannabis.

Are you likely to get a psychosis such as paranoia from being exposed to cannabis? A subset of people exposed to cannabis get a temporary feeling of paranoia and psychosis. Scientists have done studies to determine that a variant in the AKT1 gene is associated with psychosis response.

TPH2 – Normal (TT)

You are part of 20% of the population. With this result, you are likely to have average levels of anxiety, like GT result. You may also be more dependent on rewards to encourage good behavior. This is one of several genes that contribute to our behavior and mood.

The brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. Variations in this gene control the levels of the chemical serotonin in your brain. Serotonin is an important chemical in your brain that controls your mood. Scientists have used twin studies to find that the genetic component to high anxiety and compulsiveness is particularly high when these traits are first present at a young age.

ACE – Normal (AG)

This gene has been studied extensively and controls regulation of blood vessel constriction and therefore controls how efficient your muscles work. People with AG can have less cardiac strain under exertion, and therefore often excel at exercises requiring endurance. People with this result will gravitate towards marathons, long endurance bike races and any exercises that require steady and consistent cardiac output. People like you will be more likely to do well at 5k races rather than a 40 yard dash.

People with this genetic makeup will struggle with short burst high intensity workouts but excel at moderate heart rate moderate duration workouts. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ACE gene encodes an enzyme that indirectly increases blood pressure by causing blood vessels to constrict thereby regulating inflammation, red blood cell synthesis, tissue oxygenation, and muscle efficiency. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ACE gene influence skeletal muscle strength, metabolic efficiency, and electrolyte reabsorption. Analysis determines if a person is likely to experience less cardiac strain/fatigue during training or if they have increased power/strength gains but at higher cardiac strain.

VEGF – Gifted (CG)

This result is similar to CC. This result is associated with better blood vessel development. This is particularly important during high levels of exercise. As a result, people with this result may find they are good at aerobic exercise and have greater endurance. Studies have found that CC or CG confer an advantage in endurance sports.

People with this result can engage in a variety of workout plans with less burning and soreness after working out. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VEGF codes for the protein called vascular endothelial growth factor. VEGF is very important for blood vessel growth to support muscle health. The ability to increase the amount of blood supply during exercise will increase your maximal oxygen consumption and muscle performance. Genetic polymorphisms in VEGF are associated with endurance and recovery from intense exercise. This test is associated with higher aerobic exercise performance and greater endurance.

TPH2 – Normal (GT)

You are part of 40% of the population. With this result, you are likely to have average levels of anxiety. You may also be more dependent on rewards to encourage good behavior. This is one of several genes that contribute to our behavior and mood.

The brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. Variations in this gene control the levels of the chemical serotonin in your brain. Serotonin is an important chemical in your brain that controls your mood. Scientists have used twin studies to find that the genetic component to high anxiety and compulsiveness is particularly high when these traits are first present at a young age.

FAAH – Gifted (AA)

You are very rare among 5% of the population. Scientists have found a strong association with the ‘A’ result and increased happiness. With the AA result, you may be generally less anxious and calmer. You may also be able to forget unpleasant memories more easily. You may get lower response to marijuana as compared to the CC result. You are also likely to be less sensitive to cold and may require less pain relief after surgery. Scientists have found that this can lead to an increased risk for drug and alcohol dependence.

This gene, FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is known as the ГўВЂВњhappyГўВЂВќ or ГўВЂВњblissГўВЂВќ gene. This gene regulates anandamide which is the body’s own chemical molecule that enhances sensory pleasure such as hearing, vision, and skin sensations, as well as reduces pain. If you have one form of this gene (AA), your body produces 50% less FAAH, which means a slower breakdown of anandamide. Hence, the AA form causes people to have a stronger response to anandamide affecting the dopamine reward pathway, and will result in feeling happier and less anxious. FAAH has a role in pain, depression, appetite, inflammation, and has been shown to be associated with risk in drug and alcohol abuse. Scientists have studied this variation in FAAH gene in association with the need for pain killers like oxycodone after surgery.

CLOCK – Normal (AG)

You are among the 40% of the population and are like those with AA result. You are likely to be highly agreeable with a lower incidence of mental disorders. You are likely to have strong social skills.

Agreeableness is one of the five broad dimensions of human personality and has been associated with variants in the CLOCK gene. This gene has a role in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is your body clock that responds to cues in your environment such as day/night cycles. Your biological clock regulates your sleep, emotion and behavior. Scientists have found abnormalities in the circadian rhythms in patients with mood disorders and those with alcohol and other drug use disorders. The CLOCK gene has also been found to interact with the OXTR gene which also contributes to your social behavior.

ADRB2 – Adapt (AG)

Studies have found that this result is associated with a higher BMI and lower V02 max, and therefore a propensity for less endurance and more power. People like this would want to focus on power move exercises. Short bursts with high intensity are the types of exercises you will want to focus on. Workouts that have 30 seconds of work followed by a minute of rest. Things such as box jumps, single leg bounding jumps.

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB2 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), CNS, heart, kidney and muscle where they are involved in smooth muscle relaxation (e.g. bronchodilation). Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB2 gene have been shown to affect endurance and risk for obesity. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have higher endurance or reduced VO2 max (a measure of the maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use) and increased risk of obesity.

MSTN – Normal (TT)

This result is most common, accounting for 90% of the population. Unlike people with CC or CT, people like you have a tendency to have average muscle mass and therefore average strength. People with this result can take on a training program in any direction and likely see results.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The MSTN gene encodes the protein called myostatin. Myostatin is produced in muscle and controls muscle growth. With less myostatin, there will be significantly more muscle mass and those individuals will be stronger than normal. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with different amounts of muscle mass and the ability to produce peak power and increased strength. This gene is associated with your ability to build strength.

ADORA2A – Normal (CC)

You are among 40% of the population with this result. You are less sensitive to caffeine than those with the TT result and less likely to experience anxiety associated with caffeine consumption. Thus, you may tend to ingest more caffeinated drinks. Other genetic and clinical factors may influence a person’s caffeine response.

Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug. However, people report a wide range of effects from caffeine, especially anxiety responses. Caffeine effects are through the Adenosine A2A receptor and scientists have found variations in this gene that can contribute to individual sensitivity to caffeine. This A2A receptor also can interact with the dopamine receptor that has a role in mood.

AKT1 – Gifted (TT)

You are among 30% of the population. With this result you have the lowest risk of acute psychosis from cannabis exposure.

Are you likely to get a psychosis such as paranoia from being exposed to cannabis? A subset of people exposed to cannabis get a temporary feeling of paranoia and psychosis. Scientists have done studies to determine that a variant in the AKT1 gene is associated with psychosis response.

COL5a1 – Adapt (TT)

This gene affects tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. This rare result is found in less than 10% of the population. People with TT tend to have less range of joint motion and less flexible tendons than with the CC or CT result and therefore may be more prone to injury. Scientists have also reported that those with a TT result had faster run times than those with a CC result.

Consider a training program that balances low and high impact activities to strengthen muscles will help protect from injury. Also avoid any behind the neck press activities. Consider swimming as an alternative to running sports.

Nutritional supplements can also be beneficial for joint health. Some examples of supplements shown in medical studies to be beneficial are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid.

Maintaining proper posture during workouts and at rest can play a large role in joint health. Also if you are considering running make sure to choose shoes that correspond to the arches of your feet as well as the strike pattern of your foot such as overpronation, underpronation or neutral. Finally with footwear make sure that you check the compression factor of your shoes because worn shoes can cause stress on your weight bearing joints.

[NOTE]- If you are gifted in genes within the endurance category be extra careful not to push too far with this result. Its advised to also do more pre-conditioning and dynamic stretching work than normal with this result. People with this result may also want to consider shortening a normal workout before muscles are fatigued if you are gifted in any endurance categories to help prevent injuries.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The COL5a1 gene encodes for the protein called Collagen Type V that is the main protein found in bone. This protein is also found in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. Genetic polymorphisms related to COL5a1 are associated with endurance and joint health. The assessment determines if a person should consider preventive exercises to prevent trouble with their joints.

FTO – Adapt (AT)

This variant is found in 40% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this variant usually have greater appetites than people with TT leading to higher weight and BMI. It is important build strategies around meals and snacks to be mindful and intuitive to your hunger and satiety cues. It will be important to try to eat meals at a slower pace, chewing completely and putting down your fork between bites to allow time for satiation to be cued. If you struggle with weight and satiation, you may need a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist to make a meal plan as a guidance for meal size and frequency based on your personal needs.

This gene is associated with fat mass and obesity due to its role in controlling appetite. Scientists have done studies that showed a strong correlation with variants of this gene and the incidence of obesity. The gene has a role in the feeling of “fullness” or satiety, or lack there of when eating.

SLC23A1 – Normal (CC)

This is the common form of this gene with about 90% of the population having CC. You are likely to have well balanced levels of Vitamin C. Enjoy Vitamin C rich foods from fruits and vegetables in your meals and snacks.

Genetic analysis can reveal if individuals are more likely to have well-balanced or higher levels of Vitamin C in their blood. We require Vitamin C for our health and our need for Vitamin C comes completely from the foods that we eat. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that supports normal growth and develepment, helps with the absorption of iron, protects cells from damage and is necessary for the synthesis of important proteins such as collagen and hormones. Vitamin C can be found in foods such as bell peppers, tomatoes, dark leafy greens, papaya, strawberries, oranges, lemons, pineapples and other citrus fruits.

SCN9A – Normal (GG)

You are in the majority of the population (60%) and have normal pain sensitivity. However, there are multiple genes that contribute to our sensitivity to pain and your result needs to be taken together with the other pain sensitive genes.

Are you insensitive to pain? Sensing pain is important for our health. This gene codes for the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7 which is found in neurons that sense pain. If you have one form of this gene, you are more likely to be completely insensitive to pain. However, there are multiple genes that contribute to our sensitivity to pain.

CRP – Normal (CT)

This is the most common variant and found in 50% of the population. This population has increased inflammation in their bodies and therefore, also has increased inflammation after exercise. Studies have found that people with this variant often have higher CRP levels post-exercise, resulting in a greater inflammatory response from intense activity. Higher CRP levels have been associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness and decreased endurance.

People with this result will need more recovery time and should have 24-48 hours of rest or low intensity activity in between their high intensity workouts. A workout plan that alternates between high intensity workouts and yoga or pilates would allow the inflammation levels to decrease between workouts.

People with this result may also want to consider eating foods with anti-inflammatory properties, and taking supplements that help lower inflammation in the body, such as:

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The CRP gene encodes the protein called C-Reactive Protein that is found in blood. The level of this protein reflects the amount of general inflammation in your body. The more prone you are to inflammation, the higher your levels of CRP are post-exercise. In addition, studies have found that CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular fitness and endurance.

APOE – Normal (CC)

This gene is involved in controlling lipid and cholesterol metabolism from your diet. This result is the most commonly found variant found in 75% of the population. Studies have shown that people with CT or CC tend to have normal fat storage and metabolism.

People with this result trying to add mass quickly will find it more difficult than people with TT. For this result less repetitive higher power workouts are necessary to add mass.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The APOE gene encodes a protein called Apolipoprotein E that is involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the APOE gene have been shown to affect weight gain. Analysis determines if a person is likely to easily gain weight or is considered average.

eNOS – Gifted (CT)

This gene functions to regulate the blood flow in your body including your muscles. Production of Nitric Oxide via the eNOS pathway declines rapidly as you age. Studies have shown that this result is more often associated with power athletes than those with the CC genotype.

People like you may have greater blood flow to your muscles and therefore more strength for exercise that requires power over endurance. More blood flow to your muscles means more oxygen and nutrients can get to your fatigued muscles to help replenish and repair them. More blood flow to your muscles means higher intensity and sustained workouts can be achieved with the correct tailored training program.

Foods that have been shown to increase NO levels include beets, kale, celery, arugula, pomegranates, blueberries and strawberries.

People with this result will see their muscles pumped up and more defined after a strength training workout.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The eNOS gene is also known as NOS3 and encodes for a protein called endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This protein is involved in regulating blood vessels allowing more blood flow to your muscles. Genetic polymorphisms of eNOS are associated with athletic power. This gene is associated with athletics that require power over endurance.

COMT – Normal (AG)

You are part of 40% of the population and intermediate between GG and AA result. You have some worrier and warrior in you! Your pain threshold is intermediate and you may be less vulnerable to stress.

Are you a warrior or a worrier? Individual people have very different thresholds for pain and response to stress. Scientists have found that variations in the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene which regulates the dopamine levels in the brain are associated with pain thresholds and mood. COMT is a key regulator of pain perception, cognitive function and mood, by regulating the chemical in your brain called o-catecholamine. Concentrations of this chemical are critical for a lot of pathways in your brain. Scientists have found that people with the GG result have higher COMT enzymatic activity, therefore lower dopamine levels in the brain.

IL-6 – Adapt (CG)

This result is a little more common than CC and found in 15% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this result may have higher levels of inflammation after training but not as high as those with CC. People like you may recover from exertion slower than those with the GG result.

People with this result should be careful to not overwork muscles during exercising. Diversification of workout programs and using all types of movement patterns is also very important to reduce possibility of injury.

Training would include lots of “pre-hab” such as stability training, shoulder balancing, hip balancing, as well as work to ensure stability of knees and joints. People with this result should get more rest between workouts as well as consider diet and nutritional supplement choices that include foods that have been show to reduce inflammation.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs. Also consider a certified personal nutritionist to explore dietary changes to boost recovery rates in between workouts.

The IL-6 gene encodes the protein called interleukin-6 which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. These inflammatory compounds such as IL-6 have an important role in repairing our bodies from inflammation caused by intense exercise. Variations in IL-6 are associated with our ability in power sports to recover from the exertion. This gene is associated with recovery from the inflammation after power sports.

SLC6A2 – Adapt (CC)

You are among 30% of the population. With this result, you are more likely to have a stronger positive mood response from a drug like an amphetamine. This effect was higher for males than females. This may mean that you are more likely to have repeated and excessive use of drugs such as amphetamines.

SLC6A2 is the norepinephrine transporter. Norepinephrine is an important chemical in your brain that allows communication between your cells. Scientists have found that norepinephrine plays a critical role in a person’s response to stress and maintaining attention to tasks. Individual differences in this gene have been found to affect behavior, mood, and drug responses. After taking drugs such as amphetamines, norepinephrine has a role in increased positive mood.

COMT – Normal (GG)

You are in the majority as part of 45% of the population. If you have this result, you are more like a warrior, and therefore may have less exploratory behavior; higher pain threshold, and better recovery from stress. You may also have better performance and ability to process aversive stimuli.

Are you a warrior or a worrier? Individual people have very different thresholds for pain and response to stress. Scientists have found that variations in the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene which regulates the dopamine levels in the brain are associated with pain thresholds and mood. COMT is a key regulator of pain perception, cognitive function and mood, by regulating the chemical in your brain called o-catecholamine. Concentrations of this chemical are critical for a lot of pathways in your brain. Scientists have found that people with the GG result have higher COMT enzymatic activity, therefore lower dopamine levels in the brain.

eNOS – Gifted (TT)

This gene functions to regulate the blood flow in your body including your muscles. Production of Nitric Oxide via the eNOS pathway declines rapidly as you age. Studies have shown that this result is the one most commonly found in elite athletes involved in power sports compared to genotypes CC and CT.

Nitric Oxide plays an important role in maintaining healthy blood flow to your muscles. More blood flow to your muscles means more oxygen and nutrients can get to your fatigued muscles to help replenish and repair them. Foods that have been shown to increase NO levels include beets, kale, celery, arugula, pomegranates, blueberries and strawberries.

People like you may have greater blood flow to your muscles and therefore more strength for exercise that requires power over endurance. More blood flow to your muscles means higher intensity and sustained workouts can be achieved with the correct tailored training program.

People with this result will see their muscles pumped up and more defined after a strength training workout.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The eNOS gene is also known as NOS3 and encodes for a protein called endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This protein is involved in regulating blood vessels allowing more blood flow to your muscles. Genetic polymorphisms of eNOS are associated with athletic power. This gene is associated with athletics that require power over endurance.

DRD4 – Gifted (CC)

Like CT, people like you have an Increased susceptibility to risk seeking behavior. You are more likely to be an extrovert and may seek out novel and thrilling experiences.

Are you an extrovert? Scientists have studied aspects of human behavior such as how out-going and impulsive you are and how motivated you are to seek novel experiences. These behaviors seem to go together and the brain chemical called dopamine is largely responsible for this group of behaviors.

LEPR – Normal (AG)

Forty-two percent of the population are like you and this variant is similar to AA and comes with lower risk of obesity compared to GG. It is important to include regularl exercise to stay healthy and decrease risk of disease with a nutrient dense and varied diet.

Analysis of the LEPR gene can reveal an individual’s risk of obesity. The metabolic rate of an individual is a major determinant of weight gain and loss. With a high metabolic rate, you will likely burn more calories for the same activity as others and therefore more likely to have a lower average weight. With a low metabolic rate, you are more likely to gain weight with the same levels of activity and calories as someone with a higher metabolic rate. This genetic analysis will give you insight into your metabolic rate.

ESR1 – Normal (CC)

You are in the majority, one of 60% of the population. Your risk for migraine headaches is low compared to those with the GG result.

Migraines can be caused by multiple factors, but scientists have found genetic factors to contribute to a person’s susceptibility to migraines. The ESR1 gene coding the estrogen receptor is one of the genes that scientists have found to be associated with migraine and migraine aura risk for both men and women.

ADIPOQ – Adapt (AG)

This is rare at 8% of the population and people have lower levels of adiponectin similar to those that are AA and may more likely be obese. It may be appropriate to follow a diet lower in fat, as recommended by the American Heart Association, have a varied diet and limit high fat foods including fried foods, high fat dairy and animal products. Dieting may be more effective than those with GG because there is lower chance of regaining lost weight.

This gene is involved in controlling the break down (metabolism) of fat in your body. With the analysis of this gene, certain individuals may find they have an increased ability to process fat from their diet and others will find they have a decreased ability to metabolize fat, contributing to weight gain.

TAS2R38 – Gifted (CC)

This type is found in 36 % of the population. Like, CT, you are likely to taste bitter in foods. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

The ability to taste foods that are bitter likely dates back to our ancestors to avoid ingesting toxic plants that could be hazardous to our health. However, we have since discovered health benefits in some of the foods that taste bitter to us (e.g. cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts, and collard greens). Genetic analysis can determine our ability to taste bitterness (and therefore likes and dislikes) in certain foods. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

DRD2 – Normal (GG)

You have a common type found in 40% of the population and your risk of addictive behavior is quite low. Strive to eat a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to meet your needs and goals.

Analysis of this gene reveals if you are at a greater risk of reward-seeking, addictive behaviors which can lead to overeating. The gene in question is involved with dopamine, an important chemical found in your brain that plays a role in signaling you to “feel good”.

MC4R – Adapt (CC)

You are rare with this variant as it is found in only 5% of the population. With this type, it is more likely that you are at risk of obesity. It is recommended to work with a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist that can create a nutrition plan for you based on nutrient dense foods to meet your personal needs for a healthy weight.

Analysis of this gene can reveal if an individual is likely to have increased waist size, increased BMI (body mass index), and a higher incidence of insulin resistance. Mutations in this gene have been found to have the strongest association with childhood and adult obesity.

TRHR – Normal (CC)

This gene has a role in skeletal muscle development and controlling lean muscle mass. People like you have a result found in over 40% of the population. This result is normal and in line with general populations. Training for an individual with this result can still achieve good power performance and muscle strength.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene TRHR encodes for the protein called thyrotrophin releasing hormone receptor. TRHR controls the levels of thyroxin which has a role in skeletal muscle health. Polymorphisms in TRHR are associated with the amount of lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle health. This gene is associated with the amount of LBM and muscle strength.

MC4R – Normal (TT)

The TT type is found in 55% of the population and is not associated with a tendency to gain weight and have a higher BMI. It is still recommended to eat a balanced diet and regularly exercise to lead a healthy lifestyle and decrease risk of chronic diseases.

Analysis of this gene can reveal if an individual is likely to have increased waist size, increased BMI (body mass index), and a higher incidence of insulin resistance. Mutations in this gene have been found to have the strongest association with childhood and adult obesity.

FABP2 – Normal (CC)

This result is the most common and found in 45% of the population. This gene codes a protein that binds to the fatty acids in your diet. Studies have shown that this CC variant is associated with normal fat metabolism and a lower risk of obesity.

The FABP2 gene encodes for the protein called fatty acid binding protein. This form of the protein has a role in transporting fatty acids particularly in our intestines to control the processing of the fats that we eat. Genetic polymorphisms of FABP2 are associated with how well we process the fats from our diet. This gene is associated with our sensitivity to fatty acids and risk of obesity.

CRP – Adapt (CC)

This result is found in 35% of the population. This population has increased inflammation in their bodies and therefore, also has increased inflammation after exercise. Studies have found that people with this variant often have higher CRP levels post-exercise, resulting in a greater inflammatory response from intense activity. Higher CRP levels have been associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness and decreased endurance.

People with this result will need more recovery time and should have 24-48 hours of rest or low intensity activity in between their high intensity workouts. A workout plan that alternates between high intensity workouts and yoga or pilates would allow the inflammation levels to decrease between workouts.

People with this result may also want to consider eating foods with anti-inflammatory properties, and taking supplements that help lower inflammation in the body, such as:

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The CRP gene encodes the protein called C-Reactive Protein that is found in blood. The level of this protein reflects the amount of general inflammation in your body. The more prone you are to inflammation, the higher your levels of CRP are post-exercise. In addition, studies have found that CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular fitness and endurance.

CRP – Gifted (TT)

This result is rare and found in about 15% of the population. Studies have found that people with this result have lower CRP levels after intense exercise and a decreased inflammatory response to exercise. As a result, this means that you may have higher endurance levels than people with CC or CT.

People with this result can work out every day at a very high intensity without as much inflammation as people with the other gene variants. People with this TT variant may benefit from a workout plan that includes both high intensity interval training (HIIT) and endurance exercises. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The CRP gene encodes the protein called C-Reactive Protein that is found in blood. The level of this protein reflects the amount of general inflammation in your body. The more prone you are to inflammation, the higher your levels of CRP are post-exercise. In addition, studies have found that CRP levels are associated with cardiovascular fitness and endurance.

GC – Adapt (TG)

35% of the population has TG and you may have levels of vitamin D between those with TT and GG. Follow guidelines for short exposure to the sun to help increase your Vitamin D levels, and increase foods that are good sources of Vitamin D such as salmon, tuna and eggs. Talk to your Doctor about receiving the 25 (OH) D blood test to learn your Vitamin D levels and possibly supplement with a Vitamin D3 supplement at a level recommended from your Doctor.

Scientists have found that a variation in this gene is predictive for having an increased risk of low levels of Vitamin D. You may know Vitamin D as the vitamin that our skin cells produce from sunlight. A few foods naturally contain Vitamin D including salmon, tuna, and eggs. In the body, Vitamin D is essential in absorbing calcium and plays a large role in bone growth and remodeling, as well as immunity. Vitamin D levels are also known to be low when you live in a climate with little sun exposure, from a vegan/low-fat diet, and as we age.

SOD2 – Normal (AG)

This gene is involved in protecting your muscle cells from damage from exercise and has been found to be important in recovery from exercise. You have a result found in 35% of the population. People with this result are similar to those with the AA genotype and therefore have average free radical protection and recovery from exercise.

Consider mixing your workouts with periodic rest days to allow your body to recover from exercise. In addition anti oxidant supplements have been shown to reduce exercise induced injury and enhance recovery times.

Supplements such as

• Beta Carotine

and foods containing those key vitamins can potentially be beneficial.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

During exercise, oxidative stress is linked to muscle metabolism and muscle damage, because exercise increases free radical production. Tests indicate that some individuals are more protected from oxidative damage. The gene SOD2 encodes the protein superoxide dismutase-2. This is a protein found in the part of your cell that provides energy and also has a role in reducing the oxidative damage to cells. Genetic variations in SOD2 are associated with cell health and the ability to repair damage from intense exercise.

NBPF3 – Gifted (TT)

This is the rare genotype found in 20% of the population that is associated with normally higher levels of Vitamin B6. Unlike CC and CT, you have a naturally higher level of Vitamin B6. You are less prone to a Vitamin B6 deficiency.

Analysis of this gene reveals an individual’s likelihood of having higher or lower vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group, mainly serving as a coenzyme in many enzyme reactions in amino acids, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Early Vitamin B6 deficiency can be related to irritability, depression, insomnia and anxiety. More severe deficiencies can be related to nausea, vomiting and convulsions. Vitamin B6 can be found in nutritional supplements, nutritional yeasts, potatoes, wheat germ, legumes, meat, bananas and fortified cereals.

DRD4 – Normal (TT)

With this type, you are in the majority of the population and in the normal range and therefore not overly impulsive and do not show thrill-seeking behavior.

Are you an extrovert? Scientists have studied aspects of human behavior such as how out-going and impulsive you are and how motivated you are to seek novel experiences. These behaviors seem to go together and the brain chemical called dopamine is largely responsible for this group of behaviors.

DRD4 – Gifted (CT)

People like you have an Increased susceptibility to risk seeking behavior. You are more likely to be an extrovert and may seek out novel and thrilling experiences.

Are you an extrovert? Scientists have studied aspects of human behavior such as how out-going and impulsive you are and how motivated you are to seek novel experiences. These behaviors seem to go together and the brain chemical called dopamine is largely responsible for this group of behaviors.

ACTN3 – Adapt (TT)

This genotype is quite rare and found in 10% of the population. This result is associated with few or no fast twitch muscles and therefore a lower capacity for absorption and transmission of muscle force during rapid contraction.

Fast twitch muscle fibers are responsible for quick movements such as punch, jump or a sudden burst of energy. A lack of fast twitch muscle fibers also mean it will be more difficult to put on muscle mass quickly.

People with this result may not be as inherently good at sports that require quick sudden bursts of energy compared to those who have CC and CT results. This result does not mean you should not take up activities such as boxing or sprinting rather you may just not excel at this type of activity.

You may be likely to excel at more endurance types of activities such as biking, hiking, triathlons, rock climbing, cross country skiing and swimming. An ideal training program would be to consider yoga and pilates as strengthening exercises with higher reps of lower resistance or with lower weights. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

This is the most studied fitness gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes for the protein alpha actinin-3 and this gene provides instructions for making a specific muscle protein that impacts the ability of skeletal muscles to produce force at a high velocity. This is crucial for success in sports requiring power and short bursts of speed (sprinting). Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced performance in power and sprint activities or is considered normal.

OPRM1 – Gifted (TT)

This is the rare result, only 5% of the population have this result. You may have a lower stimulation response and euphoria after amphetamine and other drugs and therefore less likely to have drug dependency.

Amphetamine, a prototypic drug of abuse, increases feelings of euphoria, energy and attention in most people. However, some individuals experience a bad reaction to amphetamines or other drugs such as increased anxiety or dysphoria instead of euphoria. Scientists have found that the response you have may be genetic in origin. Studies have found that this gene, the opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays a role in substance use. The variations in OPRM1 gene can be broadened to nicotine in cigarettes and other drugs such as cannabis since the cannabinoid and opioid systems can interact.

SLC2A2 – Normal (GG)

The majority of the population (70%) have GG and are likely to have a normal sugar consumption and less craving to eat sweet foods.

This gene is believed to explain sugar cravings and why some people crave sugar more than others. Some individuals may find that their high sugar consumption (which may lead to obesity) can be explained by analysis of this gene. Knowledge of this gene variation can place emphasis on the need to create a nutrient dense meal plan and healthy lifestyle, while limiting sugar choices and availability in the diet. The main sources of added sugar include soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, candy, cakes, cookies, crackers, cereals, desserts, condiments, syrups, dressings, and sauces.

FTO – Normal (TT)

You have a genetic variant common to 40% of the population. This gene is known to regulate expression of genes involved in appetite. Studies have shown that people with TT have the lowest chance compared to people with AA or AT of being overweight and generally will have a normal BMI. Strive to eat a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to meet your needs and goals.

This gene is associated with fat mass and obesity due to its role in controlling appetite. Scientists have done studies that showed a strong correlation with variants of this gene and the incidence of obesity. The gene has a role in the feeling of “fullness” or satiety, or lack there of when eating.

FADS1 – Adapt (CT)

This is a common result found in 43% of the population. The appearance of a “T” indicates you may have higher cholesterol levels than the recommended levels. You may want to check with your Doctor on your blood cholesterol levels and adjust your diet to support healthy cholesterol levels.

Scientists have found that variants in this gene can cause individual to have higher cholesterol levels than normal. Regulation of our HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels are important to our cholesterol levels, inflammation and health.

COMT – Adapt (AA)

You are among 15% of the population and may be more of a worrier and have a tendency for more exploratory behavior. In addition, you may have a lower pain threshold and enhanced vulnerability to stress. You may need higher amounts of pain medicine to offset your low threshold for pain.

Are you a warrior or a worrier? Individual people have very different thresholds for pain and response to stress. Scientists have found that variations in the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene which regulates the dopamine levels in the brain are associated with pain thresholds and mood. COMT is a key regulator of pain perception, cognitive function and mood, by regulating the chemical in your brain called o-catecholamine. Concentrations of this chemical are critical for a lot of pathways in your brain. Scientists have found that people with the GG result have higher COMT enzymatic activity, therefore lower dopamine levels in the brain.

BCM01 – Normal (AA)

56% of the population have a normal conversion rate and therefore if you are eating a balanced and varied diet rich in Vitamin A, your levels should be adequate. Food sources of Vitamin A include carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver.

Analysis of this gene reveals if an individual has a tendency to have lower levels of Vitamin A in their body. Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone growth, vision, reproduction and for the maintenance of the immune system. Individuals that have a tendency toward lower levels of Vitamin A may choose to incorporate more food sources of Vitamin A, including carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver, as well as choosing to supplement their diet with additional Vitamin A, as needed. It is important to note that Vitamin A can be toxic when consumed in excessive amounts. Preformed Vitamin A (beta carotene and mixed carotenoids) is much less toxic.

ADORA2A – Adapt (TT)

With this result, you are part of 30% of the population. This result is associated with increased anxiety especially after caffeine. You may also have impaired sleep. With this result, you may need to limit the amount of caffeine you have daily or avoid it altogether. Other genetic and clinical factors may influence a person’s caffeine response.

Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug. However, people report a wide range of effects from caffeine, especially anxiety responses. Caffeine effects are through the Adenosine A2A receptor and scientists have found variations in this gene that can contribute to individual sensitivity to caffeine. This A2A receptor also can interact with the dopamine receptor that has a role in mood.

RGS2 – Adapt (GG)

You are in the minority with this result, about 10% of the population have GG result. With this result, you are at risk for an anxiety and panic disorder. You may also be introverted, less social and like to avoid situations with large groups of people than those with the CC result.

RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling) is at very high levels in the brain and is responsible for controlling signaling between neurons. The protein first was identified as having a role in the panic response and anxiety in mice but then found to have the same role in people. Variants in RGS2 were found to be associated with anxiety and panic through behavior tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

APOa2 – Adapt (GG)

This result is the most common and found in about 60% of the population. This gene is involved in the metabolism of lipids and cholesterol from your diet. Studies have shown that people like you with this result may have an increased sensitivity to saturated fat relative to the AG and AA results.

The APOa2 gene encodes a protein called Apolipoprotein A-II that is involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic variations related to the APOa2 gene have been shown to affect food metabolism. Analysis determines if a person is likely sensitive to saturated fatty acids or is considered average.

SLC2A2 – Adapt (AA)

This variant is rare and found in 10% of the population. People with AA have been found to have significantly higher sugar consumption and higher cravings for sugar in their diets. With this strong craving for sugar, it is recommended to work on moderating your sugar consumption to avoid obesity and an unbalanced diet. It is recommended to work toward a balanced diet and make a goal to keep added sugar intake to less than 5% of total caloric intake or to less than 37.5g of added sugar per day for men and 25g of added sugar per day for women. This can help to decrease your risk of weight gain due to calories consumed from added sugar.

This gene is believed to explain sugar cravings and why some people crave sugar more than others. Some individuals may find that their high sugar consumption (which may lead to obesity) can be explained by analysis of this gene. Knowledge of this gene variation can place emphasis on the need to create a nutrient dense meal plan and healthy lifestyle, while limiting sugar choices and availability in the diet. The main sources of added sugar include soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, candy, cakes, cookies, crackers, cereals, desserts, condiments, syrups, dressings, and sauces.

eNOS – Normal (CC)

This gene functions to regulate the blood flow in your body including your muscles. Production of Nitric Oxide via the eNOS pathway declines rapidly as you age. Studies have shown that people with this result have a lower level of eNOS activity.

Nitric Oxide plays an important role in maintaining healthy blood flow to your muscles. More blood flow to your muscles means more oxygen and nutrients can get to your fatigued muscles to help replenish and repair them.

People with this result will likely see a lower level of Nitric Oxide and could benefit from modifying diet to increase natural levels of Nitric Oxide. Foods that have been shown to increase NO levels include beets, kale, celery, arugula, pomegranates, blueberries and strawberries. When working out remember that lower blood flow means less nutrients to those fatigued muscles so its recommended that frequent rests be taken when undergoing an exercise program.

[NOTE] If you have this result and low exercise recovery (see IL-6 exercise recovery in Power Performance) in combination with lower oxygen capacity ( see ADRB1 in Endurance) and VO2 Max (see ADRB2 in Endurance) you should be careful to tailor your workouts and rest times to be more considerate of an increased need to recover and move those important nutrients, oxygen and recovery elements to your muscles.

Consider working with both a certified personal trainer, nutritionists and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The eNOS gene is also known as NOS3 and encodes for a protein called endothelial nitric oxide synthase. This protein is involved in regulating blood vessels allowing more blood flow to your muscles. Genetic polymorphisms of eNOS are associated with athletic power. This gene is associated with athletics that require power over endurance.

AKT1 – Normal (CT)

You are in the majority (50%) of the population with this CT result. With this result you have a slight risk of acute psychosis from cannabis exposure but less than for those with the CC result.

Are you likely to get a psychosis such as paranoia from being exposed to cannabis? A subset of people exposed to cannabis get a temporary feeling of paranoia and psychosis. Scientists have done studies to determine that a variant in the AKT1 gene is associated with psychosis response.

ACTN3 – Gifted (CC)

This genotype is found in 45% of the general population. This gene makes a protein found in fast-twitch muscles and therefore contributes to your ability to perform better in sports requiring power such as sprinting. Studies have found that more elite athletes have this genotype.

Fast twitch muscle fibers are responsible for quick movements such as punch, jump or a sudden burst of energy. For a power sports program you may be targeting boxing, basketball, sprinting, football or other high output sports. For this type of training program consider lower repetitions and higher weight/resistance exercises with a focus on jumping, throwing and fast movement activities such as vertical jumps and burpees.

If you are gifted here and in Vo2Max as well as endurance you may be highly suited for activities like rowing which requires a combination of those three types of genes. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

This is the most studied fitness gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes for the protein alpha actinin-3 and this gene provides instructions for making a specific muscle protein that impacts the ability of skeletal muscles to produce force at a high velocity. This is crucial for success in sports requiring power and short bursts of speed (sprinting). Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced performance in power and sprint activities or is considered normal.

RGS2 – Normal (CC)

You are among 50% of the population. With this result, you have the least at risk to have an anxiety and panic disorder when compared to those with CG or GG result.

RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling) is at very high levels in the brain and is responsible for controlling signaling between neurons. The protein first was identified as having a role in the panic response and anxiety in mice but then found to have the same role in people. Variants in RGS2 were found to be associated with anxiety and panic through behavior tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

AGT – Adapt (AA)

This is a rare result found in only 10% of the population. This result means you do not have an advantage in strength or power related sports. A person with this result will need to work harder and overtrain to get the same gains as someone with the GG result. Supplements and diet can also be helpful to gain muscle mass in comparison to exercise and weight training alone. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The AGT gene encodes a protein called angiotensinogen (also known as serpin peptidase) that is involved in maintaining blood pressure and vasoconstriction. Genetic polymorphisms related to the AGT gene have been shown to affect power sports performance. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have increased activity of angiotensin II, which acts as a skeletal muscle growth factor.

ADRB3 – Normal (AA)

This result is the most common result, found in 80% of the population. Studies have found that it does not confer any enhanced endurance advantage like the AG and GG alleles. People with this result are normal with regard to endurance. People like you can focus on either strength or conditioning work but take intermediate rests in between exercises. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB3 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the small intestine, adipose tissue and vascular endothelium where they are involved in lipolysis, glucose uptake, cardio-inhibition and relaxation of colon, esophagus and bladder. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB3 gene have been shown to affect endurance. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced endurance or is considered normal.

SLC2A2 – Adapt (AG)

This is a rarer type (20%) than GG and intermediate in sugar cravings corresponding to higher sugar consumption than someone with GG. It is recommended to work toward a balanced diet and make a goal to keep added sugar intake to less than 5% of total caloric intake or to less than 37.5g of added sugar per day for men and 25g of added sugar per day for women. This can help to decrease your risk of weight gain due to calories consumed from added sugar.

This gene is believed to explain sugar cravings and why some people crave sugar more than others. Some individuals may find that their high sugar consumption (which may lead to obesity) can be explained by analysis of this gene. Knowledge of this gene variation can place emphasis on the need to create a nutrient dense meal plan and healthy lifestyle, while limiting sugar choices and availability in the diet. The main sources of added sugar include soft drinks, sports drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, candy, cakes, cookies, crackers, cereals, desserts, condiments, syrups, dressings, and sauces.

CYP1A2 – Adapt (CC)

You are in the rare group of 15 percent of the population who carry two copies of the slow allele so you are a slow metabolizer of caffeine. This also means that if you have a caffeinated drink too late in the day, it could affect your sleepiness at night. Slow metabolizers of caffeine may want to limit their caffeine intake to under 200mg of caffeine per day. Having a consistent higher intake of caffeine may increase symptoms of nervousness, increased heart rate, irritability, insomnia and possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system, heart and respiratory system. Genetic analysis can determine if you are a fast or slow metabolizer of caffeine. Caffeine may have a longer-lasting effect on slow metabolizers, and may be unhealthy if consumed in large amounts. Fast metabolizers of caffeine process caffeine four times faster than slow metabolizers and may also benefit in athletic performance when following performance recommendations. Sources of caffeine: Coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, kola, guarana and some pain relievers.

IL-6 – Adapt (CC)

This is a very rare result found in 5% of the population. People with CC have less protection against the exercise-induced inflammatory response than people with GG and therefore may be more injury-prone. People with this result should be careful to not overwork muscles during exercising. Diversification of workout programs and using all types of movement patterns is also very important to reduce possibility of injury.

Training would include lots of “pre-hab” such as stability training, shoulder balancing, hip balancing, as well as work to ensure stability of knees and joints. People with this result should get more rest between workouts as well as consider diet and nutritional supplement choices that include foods that have been show to reduce inflammation.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs. Also consider a certified personal nutritionist to explore dietary changes to boost recovery rates in between workouts.

The IL-6 gene encodes the protein called interleukin-6 which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. These inflammatory compounds such as IL-6 have an important role in repairing our bodies from inflammation caused by intense exercise. Variations in IL-6 are associated with our ability in power sports to recover from the exertion. This gene is associated with recovery from the inflammation after power sports.

GDF5 – Adapt (AA)

You have a result similar to AG that is found in about 40% of the population. This gene codes for a protein that is a growth factor and keeps your bones and joints strong. Studies have shown that people with this result may have an increased risk of joint injuries.

Consider a workout program tailored to improving your joint health. Exercises such as one leg balances, rotator cuff exercises, double leg bridges, squats, hamstring curls and supermans can be beneficial.

[NOTE]- If you are gifted in genes within the endurance category be extra careful not to push too far with this result. Its advised to also do more pre-conditioning and dynamic stretching work than normal with this result. People with this result may also want to consider shortening a normal workout before muscles are fatigued if you are gifted in any endurance categories to help prevent injuries.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The GDF5 gene encodes the growth differentiation factor 5, which is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and also known as BMP14. GDF5 has a strong role in bone and joint health. Variations in GDF5 are associated with osteoarthritis. This assessment determines risk associated with joint health and the risk of injury from intense exercise.

MTHFR – Adapt (AA)

This is the rare result found in 10% of the population. You have much reduced levels of the enzyme (30% of normal). This will give you lower levels of folate, Vitamin B12, and higher levels of homocysteine. Therefore you should actively seek food such as lentils, beans, asparagus, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, and beets that are rich in folate and may consider an additional folate supplement, as needed and discussed with your doctor.

Individuals will learn if they are likely to have reduced levels of folate with the results of the analysis of this gene. This gene makes an enzyme that changes the folate you eat in your diet to an active form your body can use. Folate is extremely important during the development of the brain and therefore important during pregnancy. Folate, one of the B vitamins, is also found to be protective of heart disease. Folate is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolize amino acids which are required for cell division. Humans cannot make folate and therefore is required from the diet. Folate is most commonly found in nutritional supplements, vitamin-fortified cereals, wheat germ, legumes, green leafy vegetables, seeds and liver.

OPRM1 – Adapt (TC)

You are among 35% of the population with this result. People with this result were found to feel more stimulated and euphoric after amphetamine consumption. This is true for other drugs such as cannabis and nicotine. As a result, you may be at risk for consuming more drugs than subjects with genotype TT.

Amphetamine, a prototypic drug of abuse, increases feelings of euphoria, energy and attention in most people. However, some individuals experience a bad reaction to amphetamines or other drugs such as increased anxiety or dysphoria instead of euphoria. Scientists have found that the response you have may be genetic in origin. Studies have found that this gene, the opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays a role in substance use. The variations in OPRM1 gene can be broadened to nicotine in cigarettes and other drugs such as cannabis since the cannabinoid and opioid systems can interact.

FAAH – Normal (CC)

You are part of 60% of the population. With the CC result, you have normal levels of the enzyme and normal levels of anxiety and happiness. You are likely to find marijuana pleasurable. You can naturally decrease your anxiety with activities you like to do, chocolate or exercise. You may have more difficulty with withdrawal than those with AA result. Other genetic and environmental factors may also influence withdrawal.

This gene, FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is known as the ГўВЂВњhappyГўВЂВќ or ГўВЂВњblissГўВЂВќ gene. This gene regulates anandamide which is the body’s own chemical molecule that enhances sensory pleasure such as hearing, vision, and skin sensations, as well as reduces pain. If you have one form of this gene (AA), your body produces 50% less FAAH, which means a slower breakdown of anandamide. Hence, the AA form causes people to have a stronger response to anandamide affecting the dopamine reward pathway, and will result in feeling happier and less anxious. FAAH has a role in pain, depression, appetite, inflammation, and has been shown to be associated with risk in drug and alcohol abuse. Scientists have studied this variation in FAAH gene in association with the need for pain killers like oxycodone after surgery.

FAAH – Normal (AC)

You are part of 35% of the population. You have normal levels of the enzyme and normal levels of happiness and anxiety. You can naturally decrease your anxiety with activities you like to do, chocolate or exercise. With the AC result, you may have more difficulty with withdrawal than those with AA result. Other genetic and clinical factors may also influence withdrawal.

This gene, FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) is known as the ГўВЂВњhappyГўВЂВќ or ГўВЂВњblissГўВЂВќ gene. This gene regulates anandamide which is the body’s own chemical molecule that enhances sensory pleasure such as hearing, vision, and skin sensations, as well as reduces pain. If you have one form of this gene (AA), your body produces 50% less FAAH, which means a slower breakdown of anandamide. Hence, the AA form causes people to have a stronger response to anandamide affecting the dopamine reward pathway, and will result in feeling happier and less anxious. FAAH has a role in pain, depression, appetite, inflammation, and has been shown to be associated with risk in drug and alcohol abuse. Scientists have studied this variation in FAAH gene in association with the need for pain killers like oxycodone after surgery.

NFE2L2 – Normal (CC)

You have a result found in more than half of the population (68%). This gene has a role in compensating for the damage done to muscle after intense exercise. People like you have normal activity of this gene which provides anti oxidative protection from exercise therefore you will have average recovery after intense exercise.

People like you should consider adding more anti oxidant materials to your diet. These can include foods such as

• Wild blueberries

• Dark chocolate

• Kidney beans

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

This gene is involved in controlling anti-oxidative function for cell health. Extensive studies of elite athletes have determined the variations of this gene that are associated with your ability to recover from sports. This test is associated with your ability to recover after intense exercise.

APOE – Normal (CT)

This gene is involved in controlling lipid and cholesterol metabolism from your diet. This result is also less common and found in 15% of the population. Studies have shown that people with CT or CC tend to have normal fat storage and metabolism.

People with this result trying to add mass quickly will find it more difficult than people with TT. For this result less repetitive higher power workouts are necessary to add mass.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The APOE gene encodes a protein called Apolipoprotein E that is involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the APOE gene have been shown to affect weight gain. Analysis determines if a person is likely to easily gain weight or is considered average.

NBPF3 – Normal (CT)

40% of the population have this genotype and you likely have intermediate levels of Vitamin B6. It’s important to eat enough foods that contain Vitamin B6, such as fish, meat, whole grains, nuts and fruit.

Analysis of this gene reveals an individual’s likelihood of having higher or lower vitamin B6 levels. Vitamin B6 is part of the vitamin B group, mainly serving as a coenzyme in many enzyme reactions in amino acids, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Early Vitamin B6 deficiency can be related to irritability, depression, insomnia and anxiety. More severe deficiencies can be related to nausea, vomiting and convulsions. Vitamin B6 can be found in nutritional supplements, nutritional yeasts, potatoes, wheat germ, legumes, meat, bananas and fortified cereals.

SOD2 – Gifted (GG)

This gene is involved in protecting your muscle cells from damage from exercise and has been found to be important in recovery from exercise. You have a less common result that is found in 25% of the population. People with this result may have better protection than people with AA or AG against free radical damage from high intensity sports. People like you are typically associated with faster recovery from intense exercise.

People with this result can workout more days a week than someone who needs more time to recover.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

During exercise, oxidative stress is linked to muscle metabolism and muscle damage, because exercise increases free radical production. Tests indicate that some individuals are more protected from oxidative damage. The gene SOD2 encodes the protein superoxide dismutase-2. This is a protein found in the part of your cell that provides energy and also has a role in reducing the oxidative damage to cells. Genetic variations in SOD2 are associated with cell health and the ability to repair damage from intense exercise.

FABP2 – Adapt (CT)

This result is almost as common as CC and found in 40% of the population. People like you tend to have moderate to high sensitivity to saturated fats with less ability to metabolize fat consumed. Studies have shown that the risk of obesity is higher for people with CT than people with CC.

The FABP2 gene encodes for the protein called fatty acid binding protein. This form of the protein has a role in transporting fatty acids particularly in our intestines to control the processing of the fats that we eat. Genetic polymorphisms of FABP2 are associated with how well we process the fats from our diet. This gene is associated with our sensitivity to fatty acids and risk of obesity.

TAS2R38 – Normal (CG)

17% of the population have this form. Even with one copy of “C”, you are likely to taste bitter in foods, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts, and collard greens. This class of vegetables are high in phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which help to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, enhance immunity and promote cardiovascular health. You may try adding different combinations of herbs and spices when you cook these vegetables that will counter the bitter taste and still allow you to receive their many health promotoing benefits. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

The ability to taste foods that are bitter likely dates back to our ancestors to avoid ingesting toxic plants that could be hazardous to our health. However, we have since discovered health benefits in some of the foods that taste bitter to us (e.g. cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts, and collard greens). Genetic analysis can determine our ability to taste bitterness (and therefore likes and dislikes) in certain foods. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

EDN1 – Normal (GG)

This result is the most common, found in 60% of the general population. This gene functions in your blood vessels to control blood pressure. People with this result are not pre-disposed to endurance or strength.

People with this result will see results based on training. Studies have found that people with this result have improved control of blood pressure that results in increased power and strong cardiovascular and respiratory fitness that can be improved with exercise. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The EDN1 gene encodes for the protein endothelin 1 which is a protein found in blood vessels that functions to control your blood pressure. Genetic variations of EDN1 are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. This gene determines how effective training can be on improving your cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.

ADORA2A – Normal (CT)

With this result, you are among 30% of the population. You are more like those with the CC result than TT result. You may experience a small amount of sensitivity to caffeine by feeling anxiety from caffeine and therefore want to limit the amount of daily caffeine. You may consume more caffeine than those with TT result. Other genetic and clinical factors may influence a person’s caffeine response.

Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug. However, people report a wide range of effects from caffeine, especially anxiety responses. Caffeine effects are through the Adenosine A2A receptor and scientists have found variations in this gene that can contribute to individual sensitivity to caffeine. This A2A receptor also can interact with the dopamine receptor that has a role in mood.

ADRB1 – Normal (CC)

This result is found in 50% of the population. This gene has a role in your heart rate and function. People like you with this result are likely to have greater oxygen capacity and cardiac function and can demonstrate better endurance in long distance sports such as running and triathlons.

An example of weight training would be to be in an endurance range of 10-20 reps vs fewer higher weight reps. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB1 gene encodes a protein found in cardiac tissues and regulates heart function and metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB1 gene have been shown to affect a person’s resting heart rate. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced cardiovascular performance or is considered normal.

APOa2 – Normal (AG)

You have a variation of the gene that is found in 20% of the population. People like you have normal saturated fat metabolism.

The APOa2 gene encodes a protein called Apolipoprotein A-II that is involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic variations related to the APOa2 gene have been shown to affect food metabolism. Analysis determines if a person is likely sensitive to saturated fatty acids or is considered average.

LEPR – Adapt (GG)

You have the rare variant found in 15% of the population. With this variant you are at higher risk of obesity than AA or AG types. You can counter this tendency by monitoring your food intake closely and keeping your exercise efforts consistent. If you struggle with maintaining a healthy weight, you may need a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist to make a structured meal plan as guidance for meal size and frequency based on your personal needs and goals due to your increased risk of weight gain.

Analysis of the LEPR gene can reveal an individual’s risk of obesity. The metabolic rate of an individual is a major determinant of weight gain and loss. With a high metabolic rate, you will likely burn more calories for the same activity as others and therefore more likely to have a lower average weight. With a low metabolic rate, you are more likely to gain weight with the same levels of activity and calories as someone with a higher metabolic rate. This genetic analysis will give you insight into your metabolic rate.

FADS1 – Adapt (TT)

In populations from European origin, this is the common form at 44%. The appearance of a “T” indicates you may have higher cholesterol levels than the recommended levels. You may want to check with your Doctor on your blood cholesterol levels and adjust your diet to support healthy cholesterol levels.

Scientists have found that variants in this gene can cause individual to have higher cholesterol levels than normal. Regulation of our HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels are important to our cholesterol levels, inflammation and health.

OXTR – Adapt (AA)

You are rare, found in only 15% of the population. You may lack empathy and your interactions with others will be much improved when you make a conscious effort to be more empathetic. You may need to focus your attention on social skills to get along better with others. Those with this result tend not to handle stress well and may be less optimistic.

How empathetic are you? This gene is also known as the “social” gene because it impacts social bonding. The oxytocin receptor gene variation has been found to be related to empathy and stress reactions in people. Scientists have studied subjects in the laboratory after many tests to measure differences that people have in their reactions to empathy and stress.

SOD2 – Normal (AA)

You have a result found in 40% of the population. Exercise can generate an increase in muscle damage that can cause free radical production causing potentially more damage to your muscles. This gene is involved in protecting your muscle cells from damage from exercise and has been found to be important in recovery from exercise. People with this result have average protection from free radical production.

Consider mixing your workouts with periodic rest days to allow your body to recover from exercise. In addition anti oxidant supplements have been shown to reduce exercise induced injury and enhance recovery times.

Supplements such as

• Beta Carotine

and foods containing those key vitamins can potentially be beneficial.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

During exercise, oxidative stress is linked to muscle metabolism and muscle damage, because exercise increases free radical production. Tests indicate that some individuals are more protected from oxidative damage. The gene SOD2 encodes the protein superoxide dismutase-2. This is a protein found in the part of your cell that provides energy and also has a role in reducing the oxidative damage to cells. Genetic variations in SOD2 are associated with cell health and the ability to repair damage from intense exercise.

GDF5 – Adapt (AG)

This gene codes for a protein that is a growth factor and keeps your bones and joints strong. You have a result similar to AA that is found in about 40% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this result may be more prone to joint injuries.

Consider a workout program tailored to improving your joint health. Exercises such as one leg balances, rotator cuff exercises, double leg bridges, squats, hamstring curls and supermans can be beneficial.

Consider a training program that balances low and high impact activities to strengthen muscles will help protect from injury. Also avoid any behind the neck press activities. Consider swimming as an alternative to running sports.

[NOTE]- If you are gifted in genes within the endurance category be extra careful not to push too far with this result. Its advised to also do more pre-conditioning and dynamic stretching work than normal with this result. People with this result may also want to consider shortening a normal workout before muscles are fatigued if you are gifted in any endurance categories to help prevent injuries.

Nutritional supplements can also be beneficial for joint health. Some examples of supplements shown in medical studies to be beneficial are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The GDF5 gene encodes the growth differentiation factor 5, which is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and also known as BMP14. GDF5 has a strong role in bone and joint health. Variations in GDF5 are associated with osteoarthritis. This assessment determines risk associated with joint health and the risk of injury from intense exercise.

AGT – Normal (AG)

This result is found in 35% of population, and similar to AA, studies have found that it is associated with lesser muscle growth as compared to the GG genotype. With this result it will take longer to build muscle than someone with GG but it does not mean you will not be able to build muscle.

A person with this result will need to work harder and overtrain to get the same gains as someone with the GG result. Supplements and diet can also be helpful to gain muscle mass in comparison to exercise and weight training alone. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The AGT gene encodes a protein called angiotensinogen (also known as serpin peptidase) that is involved in maintaining blood pressure and vasoconstriction. Genetic polymorphisms related to the AGT gene have been shown to affect power sports performance. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have increased activity of angiotensin II, which acts as a skeletal muscle growth factor.

KCTD10 – Normal (GG)

This is the major variant found in 57% of the population. With this type, you may have a lower LDL (bad cholesterol). Follow a nutrient dense diet rich in fruits and vegetables, balanced with quality carbohydrates, lean protein and healthy fat, to meet your needs.

Your body’s cholesterol is found in two forms, the LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). LDL is considered “bad” cholesterol and the one that contributes the most to heart disease due to it’s contribution to plaque, which can clog arteries and make them less flexible. HDL is considered “good” cholesterol and helps keep the LDL levels in check by removing it from the arteries. Our levels of HDL are largely controlled by our genetic code and are revealed in this genetic analysis.

VDR – Adapt (TT)

You have a result found in about 60% of the population. This gene codes for the Vitamin D receptor and functions to control calcium and phosphorous levels in your body which is important for your skeletal muscle strength.

This result is associated with a higher risk of muscle and bone injury when performing high intensity sports. Consider supplementing your diet with foods rich in calcium and vitamin D.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VDR codes for the protein called Vitamin D receptor. VDR controls the calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood. The levels of calcium and phosphorous are very important for muscle mass, strength, and function. Genetic polymorphisms in VDR are associated with muscle health. This gene is associated with the strength and mass of your muscles as well as bone strength and risk of bone injury.

AGT – Gifted (GG)

This result is found in about 55% of the population. This gene codes for a protein that helps maintain blood pressure and vasoconstriction and one of its functions is as a skeletal muscle growth factor. Studies have found that this result is associated with better than average muscle growth capability.

This means you will likely be able to put on more muscle mass through working out than others. This can be beneficial in strength and power-related sports. A person with this result would be naturally able to see improvement in muscle mass as a result of a regimented exercise program. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The AGT gene encodes a protein called angiotensinogen (also known as serpin peptidase) that is involved in maintaining blood pressure and vasoconstriction. Genetic polymorphisms related to the AGT gene have been shown to affect power sports performance. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have increased activity of angiotensin II, which acts as a skeletal muscle growth factor.

LEPR – Normal (AA)

You have a common variant found in 43% of the population. With this type, you are less likely to become obese. It is important to include regular exercise to stay healthy and decrease risk of disease with a nutrient dense and varied diet.

Analysis of the LEPR gene can reveal an individual’s risk of obesity. The metabolic rate of an individual is a major determinant of weight gain and loss. With a high metabolic rate, you will likely burn more calories for the same activity as others and therefore more likely to have a lower average weight. With a low metabolic rate, you are more likely to gain weight with the same levels of activity and calories as someone with a higher metabolic rate. This genetic analysis will give you insight into your metabolic rate.

CLOCK – Adapt (GG)

You are in the rare category among 10% of the population. With the GG result, you may be less agreeable and more likely to have a mood disorder and at risk for alcohol or other drug abuse disorders. Your social skills are not as strong as those with AA or AG results.

Agreeableness is one of the five broad dimensions of human personality and has been associated with variants in the CLOCK gene. This gene has a role in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is your body clock that responds to cues in your environment such as day/night cycles. Your biological clock regulates your sleep, emotion and behavior. Scientists have found abnormalities in the circadian rhythms in patients with mood disorders and those with alcohol and other drug use disorders. The CLOCK gene has also been found to interact with the OXTR gene which also contributes to your social behavior.

DRD2 – Normal (AG)

Similar to people with GG, this is common found in 45% of the population. The AG type is associated with a lower risk of addictive behaviors than AA. Strive to eat a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to meet your needs and goals.

Analysis of this gene reveals if you are at a greater risk of reward-seeking, addictive behaviors which can lead to overeating. The gene in question is involved with dopamine, an important chemical found in your brain that plays a role in signaling you to “feel good”.

BDKRB2 – Adapt (CC)

You share a result with 40% of the population. This gene has a role in controlling blood pressure and blood flow and therefore can affect muscle efficiency. People like you will have more difficulty excelling at endurance sports due to a genetic disadvantage in terms endurance and muscle efficiency due to lower blood flow. This is because you are more likely to reach peak heart rate faster than normal. People like you should break up your reps and don’t do long steady state cardio and instead replace with shorter high intensity intervals.

This gene works in conjunction with VO2 Max. For instance if you are gifted in oxygen uptake (VO2 max) but have a harder time moving oxygen to your muscles you will see an averaging out of your abilities. If you are adapt on VO2 Max and have this result you will likely experience difficulty in endurance activities that require sustained constant oxygen delivery to your muscles. This doesn’t mean you cant run a marathon but you may just need to do it slower to prevent your heart rate from being at the maximum.

People like you may benefit from wearing a heart rate monitor when you work out. People with this result should also try to maintain heart rates at or below 70% of their max heart beat range. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The BDKRB2 gene encodes for a protein called the bradykinin receptor that is involved in the control of blood pressure and the increased blood flow in our blood vessels. It is also associated with muscle contraction and the ability for cells to absorb fluid. Genetic polymorphisms related to the BDKRB2 gene have been shown to affect athletic endurance. Analysis determines if a person has increased endurance and muscle efficiency.

ADRB1 – Gifted (GG)

This result is rare and found in 10% of the population. People with this result have been found to have a slower resting heart rate than those with the CC or CG results. As a result, GG is also associated with the benefit of lower heart strain under exercise. Your heart works less hard to pump blood throughout your body.

The ADRB1 gene encodes a protein found in cardiac tissues and regulates heart function and metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB1 gene have been shown to affect a person’s resting heart rate. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced cardiovascular performance or is considered normal.

SLC6A2 – Normal (GC)

You are among 50% of the population and have an average elation response to drugs such as amphetamines. With this result, you are less susceptible to drug dependency.

SLC6A2 is the norepinephrine transporter. Norepinephrine is an important chemical in your brain that allows communication between your cells. Scientists have found that norepinephrine plays a critical role in a person’s response to stress and maintaining attention to tasks. Individual differences in this gene have been found to affect behavior, mood, and drug responses. After taking drugs such as amphetamines, norepinephrine has a role in increased positive mood.

TAS2R38 – Normal (CT)

This is found in 33% of the population. Even with one copy of “C”, you are likely to taste bitter in foods.

The ability to taste foods that are bitter likely dates back to our ancestors to avoid ingesting toxic plants that could be hazardous to our health. However, we have since discovered health benefits in some of the foods that taste bitter to us (e.g. cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts, and collard greens). Genetic analysis can determine our ability to taste bitterness (and therefore likes and dislikes) in certain foods. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

ADIPOQ – Normal (GG)

If you are this variant, you are in the majority with 90% of the population. You have normal fat processing mechanisms. Continue to follow guidelines for a healthy diet and lifestyle by eating a variety of nutrient rich foods in balanced amounts.

This gene is involved in controlling the break down (metabolism) of fat in your body. With the analysis of this gene, certain individuals may find they have an increased ability to process fat from their diet and others will find they have a decreased ability to metabolize fat, contributing to weight gain.

OPRM1 – Adapt (CC)

You are among 60% of the population with this result. You may feel greater stimulation and euphoria after amphetamine consumption than those with TT result. Scientists have extended this result to other drugs such as cannabis and nicotine in cigarettes. People with this result were found to consume more marijuana per month than subjects with TT result.

Amphetamine, a prototypic drug of abuse, increases feelings of euphoria, energy and attention in most people. However, some individuals experience a bad reaction to amphetamines or other drugs such as increased anxiety or dysphoria instead of euphoria. Scientists have found that the response you have may be genetic in origin. Studies have found that this gene, the opioid receptor (OPRM1) plays a role in substance use. The variations in OPRM1 gene can be broadened to nicotine in cigarettes and other drugs such as cannabis since the cannabinoid and opioid systems can interact.

SLC6A2 – Normal (GG)

You are among 20% of the population and have an average elation response to drugs such as amphetamines. With this result, you are less susceptible to drug dependency. You have a similar response to those with GC result.

SLC6A2 is the norepinephrine transporter. Norepinephrine is an important chemical in your brain that allows communication between your cells. Scientists have found that norepinephrine plays a critical role in a person’s response to stress and maintaining attention to tasks. Individual differences in this gene have been found to affect behavior, mood, and drug responses. After taking drugs such as amphetamines, norepinephrine has a role in increased positive mood.

MTHFR – Normal (GG)

You have a variant found in 55% of the population and is associated with normal levels of folate. You should continue to eat a well balanced diet including foods rich in folate. You may consider discussing with your Doctor additional folate supplementation if you are a female of child-bearing age.

Individuals will learn if they are likely to have reduced levels of folate with the results of the analysis of this gene. This gene makes an enzyme that changes the folate you eat in your diet to an active form your body can use. Folate is extremely important during the development of the brain and therefore important during pregnancy. Folate, one of the B vitamins, is also found to be protective of heart disease. Folate is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolize amino acids which are required for cell division. Humans cannot make folate and therefore is required from the diet. Folate is most commonly found in nutritional supplements, vitamin-fortified cereals, wheat germ, legumes, green leafy vegetables, seeds and liver.

GCH1 – Normal (AT)

You are among 40% of the population. Like the TT result, people with this result are likely to have average pain tolerance and an average threshold for feeling pain. This is one of several genes that determine our pain tolerance.

How sensitive are you to pain? This is one of the genes that helps explain why there are individual differences in our tolerance for pain. This gene GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase) has been found to have a role in shaping our response to painful stimuli and how much pain relief you may need after surgery or during childbirth.

BDKRB2 – Gifted (TT)

You have a rare result that is found in 20% of the population. Studies have shown that a greater proportion of high endurance athletes have the TT result. People like you have a greater blood flow capacity than others. Therefore people like you are more likely to have higher endurance and muscle efficiency because of the ability for your body’s blood flow to deliver oxygen to your muscles efficiently.

People like you can work out for longer periods of time without hitting peak heart rate. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The BDKRB2 gene encodes for a protein called the bradykinin receptor that is involved in the control of blood pressure and the increased blood flow in our blood vessels. It is also associated with muscle contraction and the ability for cells to absorb fluid. Genetic polymorphisms related to the BDKRB2 gene have been shown to affect athletic endurance. Analysis determines if a person has increased endurance and muscle efficiency.

DRD2 – Adapt (AA)

Your result is found in 15% of the population and is associated with increased risk for obesity, and increased risk for addictive behaviors. If you struggle with weight and maintaining healthy behaviors around food, you may need a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist to make a structured meal plan as guidance for meal size and frequency based on your personal needs and goals.

Analysis of this gene reveals if you are at a greater risk of reward-seeking, addictive behaviors which can lead to overeating. The gene in question is involved with dopamine, an important chemical found in your brain that plays a role in signaling you to “feel good”.

APOa2 – Normal (AA)

You have a variation of the gene that is found in 20% of the population. People like you have normal saturated fat metabolism.

The APOa2 gene encodes a protein called Apolipoprotein A-II that is involved in cholesterol regulation and lipid metabolism. Genetic variations related to the APOa2 gene have been shown to affect food metabolism. Analysis determines if a person is likely sensitive to saturated fatty acids or is considered average.

EDN1 – Gifted (GT)

This result is found in 30% of the population. This gene functions to support power in sports due to the improved control of blood pressure. Studies have shown that people with this genotype may have increased power and cardiovascular and respiratory fitness with exercise similar to those with GG genotype.

People with this result will see results based on training. Studies have found that people with this result have improved control of blood pressure that results in increased power and strong cardiovascular and respiratory fitness that can be improved with exercise. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The EDN1 gene encodes for the protein endothelin 1 which is a protein found in blood vessels that functions to control your blood pressure. Genetic variations of EDN1 are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. This gene determines how effective training can be on improving your cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.

NMB – Normal (GT)

A smaller population have this variant (36%) and if you are GT, you may produce an intermediate amount of neuromedin and therefore receive the appropriate signals of “fullness” to indicate to stop eating. It is recommended that you continue to eat a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to meet your needs and goals to maintain a healthy weight and decrease risk of chronic disease.

Analysis of the NMB gene will reveal if an individual has the ability to receive the appropriate signals of “fullness” to indicate to stop eating (and therefore has a role in regaining weight over time). Studies have found that variants determine how soon you get full during eating.

KCTD10 – Adapt (CC)

This is a rare form found in only 5% of the population. Scientists have found that those with CC may have higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than CG subjects. This genetic variation places the importance on following a heart healthy and excerise nutrition program to lower your risk of cardiovascular disease. This includes, but is not limited to, having a diet high in fiber, vegetables, fruits, lean protein, healthy fats and whole grains, while limiting saturated fats found in high fat animal products, dietary cholesterol and processed foods items.

Your body’s cholesterol is found in two forms, the LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). LDL is considered “bad” cholesterol and the one that contributes the most to heart disease due to it’s contribution to plaque, which can clog arteries and make them less flexible. HDL is considered “good” cholesterol and helps keep the LDL levels in check by removing it from the arteries. Our levels of HDL are largely controlled by our genetic code and are revealed in this genetic analysis.

TRPV1 – Normal (CT)

You are among 35% of the population. You likely have average amount of joint or tissue pain related to the amount of structural damage with this result.

This gene is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1). This is the sensor in your body that is activated by pain from noxious heat and inflammation stimulation. It contributes to hypersensitivity to pain when you have tissue injury. For example, correlation between joint damage and pain is strong, but there is often discordance between the degree of structural damage and the severity of the pain. Scientists have found variants in this gene can have consequences for how you respond to acute, chronic or neuropathic pain.

GCH1 – Normal (TT)

You are among 55% of the population. People with this result are likely to have average pain tolerance and an average threshold for feeling pain. This is one of several genes that determine our pain tolerance.

How sensitive are you to pain? This is one of the genes that helps explain why there are individual differences in our tolerance for pain. This gene GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase) has been found to have a role in shaping our response to painful stimuli and how much pain relief you may need after surgery or during childbirth.

ACE – Normal (AA)

This result is found in 50% of the population. This gene has been studied extensively and controls regulation of blood vessel constriction and therefore controls how efficient your muscles work. People with AA can have less cardiac strain under exertion, and therefore often excel at exercises requiring endurance. People with this result will gravitate towards marathons, long endurance bike races and any exercises that require steady and consistent cardiac output. People like you will be more likely to do well at 5k races rather than a 40 yard dash.

People with this genetic makeup will struggle with short burst high intensity workouts but excel at moderate heart rate moderate duration workouts. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ACE gene encodes an enzyme that indirectly increases blood pressure by causing blood vessels to constrict thereby regulating inflammation, red blood cell synthesis, tissue oxygenation, and muscle efficiency. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ACE gene influence skeletal muscle strength, metabolic efficiency, and electrolyte reabsorption. Analysis determines if a person is likely to experience less cardiac strain/fatigue during training or if they have increased power/strength gains but at higher cardiac strain.

GC – Adapt (GG)

You are among 5 % of the population that may have reduced vitamin D levels. Follow guidelines for short exposure to the sun to help increase your Vitamin D levels, and increase foods that are good sources of Vitamin D such as salmon, tuna and eggs. Talk to your Doctor about receiving the 25 (OH) D blood test to learn your Vitamin D levels and possibly supplement with a Vitamin D3 supplement at a level recommended from your Doctor.

Scientists have found that a variation in this gene is predictive for having an increased risk of low levels of Vitamin D. You may know Vitamin D as the vitamin that our skin cells produce from sunlight. A few foods naturally contain Vitamin D including salmon, tuna, and eggs. In the body, Vitamin D is essential in absorbing calcium and plays a large role in bone growth and remodeling, as well as immunity. Vitamin D levels are also known to be low when you live in a climate with little sun exposure, from a vegan/low-fat diet, and as we age.

ALDH2 – Normal (GG)

You are in the 90% majority of the population that have the GG form. With GG, you can breakdown alcohol and therefore likely do not have the alcohol flush response. Most non-Asians are “GG”. Your ability to breakdown alcohol is normal, if you enjoy consuming alcohol, do so in moderate amounts. According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, moderate drinking is up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men.

A person’s sensitivity to alcohol can be determined by analyzing a specific gene to determine if a person can or cannot break down alcohol. Alcohol affects every organ in the body. It is a central nervous system depressant that is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine into the bloodstream. Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes; however, the liver can only metabolize a small amount of alcohol at a time, leaving the excess alcohol to circulate throughout the body. Without breaking down alcohol, some people show facial flushing, and can get headaches and have severe hangovers when they drink alcohol.

MCM6 – Adapt (GG)

You are among about 65% of the population that may have developed lactose intolerance. With this result type, you are likely to be lactose intolerant as an adult. This condition is associated with abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea after eating dairy products. Consider avoiding dairy products to avoid associated symptoms, and choose non-dairy alternatives as desired or consider consulting with your doctor to see if taking a lactase enzyme may help you better break down lactose.

Lactose intolerance is the inability of people of all ages to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk (and to a lesser extent other dairy products). Its a common condition that is associated with the natural decline of an enzyme in the body called lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. The inability to digest lactose can cause abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea. This often leads people to make choices to change their dietary habits to avoid lactose, or to take supplements to aid in lactose digestion. Lactose is most commonly found in dairy products, such as milk, butter, ice cream, yogurt, or cheeses. However, it is also found in processed food items likes meats, milk chocolate and nutrition bars, so it is advised to read labels closely.

OXTR – Adapt (AG)

You are among 35% of the population and lack some empathy but have more empathy than those with the AA result. You may still need to focus on your interactions with others to improve your social skills. Those with this result tend not to handle stress well and may be less optimistic.

How empathetic are you? This gene is also known as the “social” gene because it impacts social bonding. The oxytocin receptor gene variation has been found to be related to empathy and stress reactions in people. Scientists have studied subjects in the laboratory after many tests to measure differences that people have in their reactions to empathy and stress.

BCM01 – Adapt (TT)

You are very rare with 5% of the population and you are similar to “AT” and have a reduced conversion of beta carotene to retinol. You may benefit from eating more foods rich in Vitamin A and may discuss with your doctor the use of a Vitamin A supplement (in the form of beta carotene or mixed carotenoids). Food sources of Vitamin A, include carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver.

Analysis of this gene reveals if an individual has a tendency to have lower levels of Vitamin A in their body. Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone growth, vision, reproduction and for the maintenance of the immune system. Individuals that have a tendency toward lower levels of Vitamin A may choose to incorporate more food sources of Vitamin A, including carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver, as well as choosing to supplement their diet with additional Vitamin A, as needed. It is important to note that Vitamin A can be toxic when consumed in excessive amounts. Preformed Vitamin A (beta carotene and mixed carotenoids) is much less toxic.

ADRB3 – Gifted (AG)

This result is found in only 20% of the population. It is a result like GG that has also been found to be over-represented in world class runners and cyclists and is associated with greater than average endurance. Focus less on strength and do more conditioning work that takes 30-45 minutes constantly working through a series of exercises with very little rest in between.

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB3 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the small intestine, adipose tissue and vascular endothelium where they are involved in lipolysis, glucose uptake, cardio-inhibition and relaxation of colon, esophagus and bladder. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB3 gene have been shown to affect endurance. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced endurance or is considered normal.

RGS2 – Normal (CG)

You are among 40% of the population. With this result, you are less likely to have a risk for an anxiety and panic disorder.

RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling) is at very high levels in the brain and is responsible for controlling signaling between neurons. The protein first was identified as having a role in the panic response and anxiety in mice but then found to have the same role in people. Variants in RGS2 were found to be associated with anxiety and panic through behavior tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain.

VDR – Normal (CT)

This gene codes for the Vitamin D receptor and functions to control calcium and phosphorous levels in your body which is important for your skeletal muscle strength.

You have a result found in 30% of the population. People with this result have been found to have a lower incidence of injury due to good regulation of the Vitamin D receptor that controls calcium and phosphorous levels which helps to prevent injury from sports.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VDR codes for the protein called Vitamin D receptor. VDR controls the calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood. The levels of calcium and phosphorous are very important for muscle mass, strength, and function. Genetic polymorphisms in VDR are associated with muscle health. This gene is associated with the strength and mass of your muscles as well as bone strength and risk of bone injury.

TCF7L2 – Adapt (CT)

This result is found in 35% of the population. This gene has a role in sugar. People like you have a result that may make you more sensitive to sugar in your diet than people with the CC genotype. People like you may be at higher risk for weight gain.

The gene TCF7L2 encodes for the protein called “transcription factor 7-like-2” protein that has a role in controlling blood sugar levels. Genetic polymorphisms in TCF7L2 are associated with increase incidence in diabetes and weight gain. This gene can make you more or less sensitive to sugar in your diet and make you prone to weight gain.

TPH2 – Adapt (GG)

You are part of 40% of the population. Scientists have found that the GG result is associated with less activity of the enzyme. With less serotonin levels in your brain, you may be more likely to be compulsive and exhibit anxiety-related behavior and may have to work harder to sustain attention on a task. This is one of several genes that contribute to our behavior and mood.

The brain-specific tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), is the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. Variations in this gene control the levels of the chemical serotonin in your brain. Serotonin is an important chemical in your brain that controls your mood. Scientists have used twin studies to find that the genetic component to high anxiety and compulsiveness is particularly high when these traits are first present at a young age.

MCM6 – Normal (GA)

You are among 21% of the population. Even with one copy of “A”, you are likely to be able to digest milk as an adult. Continue enjoying dairy products in moderation.

Lactose intolerance is the inability of people of all ages to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk (and to a lesser extent other dairy products). Its a common condition that is associated with the natural decline of an enzyme in the body called lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. The inability to digest lactose can cause abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea. This often leads people to make choices to change their dietary habits to avoid lactose, or to take supplements to aid in lactose digestion. Lactose is most commonly found in dairy products, such as milk, butter, ice cream, yogurt, or cheeses. However, it is also found in processed food items likes meats, milk chocolate and nutrition bars, so it is advised to read labels closely.

ESR1 – Normal (CG)

You are among 30% of the population and like CC, your risk for migraine headaches is low.

Migraines can be caused by multiple factors, but scientists have found genetic factors to contribute to a person’s susceptibility to migraines. The ESR1 gene coding the estrogen receptor is one of the genes that scientists have found to be associated with migraine and migraine aura risk for both men and women.

FABP2 – Adapt (TT)

People like you have an uncommon result found in 15% of the population. Studies have shown that people with TT may be the most sensitive to saturated fatty acids and therefore have a higher risk of obesity.

The FABP2 gene encodes for the protein called fatty acid binding protein. This form of the protein has a role in transporting fatty acids particularly in our intestines to control the processing of the fats that we eat. Genetic polymorphisms of FABP2 are associated with how well we process the fats from our diet. This gene is associated with our sensitivity to fatty acids and risk of obesity.

TRHR – Normal (CT)

This gene has a role in skeletal muscle development and controlling lean muscle mass. People like you have a result found in 35% of the population. This result is normal and in line with general populations. Training for an individual with this result can still achieve good power performance and muscle strength. People like you will need extra training to achieve the same level of power performance and muscle strength as someone with TT.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene TRHR encodes for the protein called thyrotrophin releasing hormone receptor. TRHR controls the levels of thyroxin which has a role in skeletal muscle health. Polymorphisms in TRHR are associated with the amount of lean body mass (LBM) and skeletal muscle health. This gene is associated with the amount of LBM and muscle strength.

FTO – Adapt (AA)

This is a rare genetic variant that is found in approximately 20% of the population. This gene’s function is not completely understood but one role it has is it regulates genes that control appetite. Studies with people of differing weights and body mass index (BMI) have shown that people with this variant usually have a greater appetite than those with AT or TT and therefore may have a tendency to gain weight. It is important build strategies around meals and snacks to be mindful and intuitive to your hunger and satiety cues. It will be important to try to eat meals at a slower pace, chewing completely and putting down your fork between bites to allow time for satiation to be cued. If you struggle with weight and satiation, you may need a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist to make a meal plan as a guidance for meal size and frequency based on your personal needs.

This gene is associated with fat mass and obesity due to its role in controlling appetite. Scientists have done studies that showed a strong correlation with variants of this gene and the incidence of obesity. The gene has a role in the feeling of “fullness” or satiety, or lack there of when eating.

SLC23A1 – Adapt (CT)

This is rare type found in 9% of the population and may be associated with intermediate levels of Vitamin C in your blood. Lower levels of Vitamin C in the body may cause adverse health risks, consult with your doctor to find out your Vitamin C levels and adjust dietary intake as needed.

Genetic analysis can reveal if individuals are more likely to have well-balanced or higher levels of Vitamin C in their blood. We require Vitamin C for our health and our need for Vitamin C comes completely from the foods that we eat. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that supports normal growth and develepment, helps with the absorption of iron, protects cells from damage and is necessary for the synthesis of important proteins such as collagen and hormones. Vitamin C can be found in foods such as bell peppers, tomatoes, dark leafy greens, papaya, strawberries, oranges, lemons, pineapples and other citrus fruits.

TRPV1 – Gifted (CC)

You are in the rare part of the population (20%). You may be less sensitive to pain from joint or tissue damage with this result and therefore less likely to have joint pain until the structural damage is very severe.

This gene is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1). This is the sensor in your body that is activated by pain from noxious heat and inflammation stimulation. It contributes to hypersensitivity to pain when you have tissue injury. For example, correlation between joint damage and pain is strong, but there is often discordance between the degree of structural damage and the severity of the pain. Scientists have found variants in this gene can have consequences for how you respond to acute, chronic or neuropathic pain.

ACE – Gifted (GG)

With this result you are rare and an outlier. Only 15% of the population have GG. People with this result can have more cardiac output with increased strength, but would do so under higher cardiac strain. This means you have much less endurance but are very strong. Studies have found that people with GG may be better at exercises and activities requiring extraordinary strength for shorter periods of time.

People like you will be likely to excel at exercises with rep ranges of 1-5. Activities like sprinting and high intensity interval training and workouts that get your heart rate really high for a short period of time are preferred for this result. An example would be if this person were to program a rowing workout the ideal would be to do 30 seconds as hard as they can followed by resting for a minute. People with this result are likely to be similar to power lifters. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ACE gene encodes an enzyme that indirectly increases blood pressure by causing blood vessels to constrict thereby regulating inflammation, red blood cell synthesis, tissue oxygenation, and muscle efficiency. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ACE gene influence skeletal muscle strength, metabolic efficiency, and electrolyte reabsorption. Analysis determines if a person is likely to experience less cardiac strain/fatigue during training or if they have increased power/strength gains but at higher cardiac strain.

PPARg – Adapt (CG)

This is a rare result of this gene. People with this result may metabolize fat from the diet more poorly than people with CC. Studies have shown that people with this result may gain weight more easily. It is important to be mindful of the amount and type of fat you consume in your diet, to help prevent weight gain. Choose healthy fats in moderate amounts from nuts, seeds, oils, avocado and fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Limit or avoid fried foods and high-fat meat and dairy products. Consider working with a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist that can help you develop a meal plan that includes the right amount of fat to help aid in attaining or maintaining a healthy weight.

The PPARg gene has a function in controlling the storage of fat in your body and your likelihood to gain weight. Through genetic analysis of this gene, it’s possible to determine if an individual has a higher sensitivity to high fat diets and a greater likelihood of increased weight gain, due to this sensitivity.

GCH1 – Gifted (AA)

You are among the rare, making up 5% of the population. With this AA result, you are likely to have a higher tolerance to pain and a higher threshold for feeling pain than those with TT or AT result. This is one of several genes that determine our pain tolerance.

How sensitive are you to pain? This is one of the genes that helps explain why there are individual differences in our tolerance for pain. This gene GCH1 (GTP cyclohydrolase) has been found to have a role in shaping our response to painful stimuli and how much pain relief you may need after surgery or during childbirth.

COL5a1 – Adapt (CT)

This gene affects tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. This result is found in approximately 30% of the population. Studies have shown that for women with this result, it is associated with greater than normal joint hyperextension which may lead to more injury during intense exercise.

Consider a training program that balances low and high impact activities to strengthen muscles will help protect from injury. Also avoid any behind the neck press activities. Consider swimming as an alternative to running sports.

Nutritional supplements can also be beneficial for joint health. Some examples of supplements shown in medical studies to be beneficial are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid.

Maintaining proper posture during workouts and at rest can play a large role in joint health. Also if you are considering running make sure to choose shoes that correspond to the arches of your feet as well as the strike pattern of your foot such as overpronation, underpronation or neutral. Finally with footwear make sure that you check the compression factor of your shoes because worn shoes can cause stress on your weight bearing joints.

[NOTE]- If you are gifted in genes within the endurance category be extra careful not to push too far with this result. Its advised to also do more pre-conditioning and dynamic stretching work than normal with this result. People with this result may also want to consider shortening a normal workout before muscles are fatigued if you are gifted in any endurance categories to help prevent injuries.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The COL5a1 gene encodes for the protein called Collagen Type V that is the main protein found in bone. This protein is also found in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. Genetic polymorphisms related to COL5a1 are associated with endurance and joint health. The assessment determines if a person should consider preventive exercises to prevent trouble with their joints.

TRPV1 – Normal (TT)

You are among 45% of the population. You likely have average amount of joint or tissue pain related to the amount of structural damage, with this result.

This gene is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1). This is the sensor in your body that is activated by pain from noxious heat and inflammation stimulation. It contributes to hypersensitivity to pain when you have tissue injury. For example, correlation between joint damage and pain is strong, but there is often discordance between the degree of structural damage and the severity of the pain. Scientists have found variants in this gene can have consequences for how you respond to acute, chronic or neuropathic pain.

FUT2 – Adapt (GG)

You fall into the majority of 50% of the population that has this result. With this result you are likely to have low levels of Vitamin B12. Low levels of Vitamin B12 are due to poor absorption in the intestine. The GG result is also associated with lower levels of certain gut bacteria. It is recommended to discuss your Vitamin B12 levels with your physician and discuss possible supplementation of B12.

Analysis of this gene uncovers if an individual is likely to have higher or lower levels of Vitamin B12. This important vitamin has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain, the nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the human body. B12 is most commonly found in animal products such as dairy, fish, poultry, or beef.

VDR – Gifted (CC)

This gene codes for the Vitamin D receptor and functions to control calcium and phosphorous levels in your body which is important for your skeletal muscle strength.

This is a rare result that is found in less than 10% of the population. People like you tend to have the highest muscle strength compared to TT and CT alleles and therefore the lowest risk of muscle injury.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VDR codes for the protein called Vitamin D receptor. VDR controls the calcium and phosphorous levels in the blood. The levels of calcium and phosphorous are very important for muscle mass, strength, and function. Genetic polymorphisms in VDR are associated with muscle health. This gene is associated with the strength and mass of your muscles as well as bone strength and risk of bone injury.

PPARg – Normal (CC)

You have a gene result very common to over 90% of the population. This gene has a function in controlling the storage of fat in your body and your likelihood to gain weight. People like you have normal fat storage and therefore normal metabolism. It is recommended you follow a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to maintain health and reduce risk of chronic disease.

The PPARg gene has a function in controlling the storage of fat in your body and your likelihood to gain weight. Through genetic analysis of this gene, it’s possible to determine if an individual has a higher sensitivity to high fat diets and a greater likelihood of increased weight gain, due to this sensitivity.

OXTR – Normal (GG)

You are among the majority (50%) of the population. You are likely to be empathetic and you are good at reading the emotional state of others. You tend to have strong social skills. You also tend to handle stress better than those with AA or AG results.

How empathetic are you? This gene is also known as the “social” gene because it impacts social bonding. The oxytocin receptor gene variation has been found to be related to empathy and stress reactions in people. Scientists have studied subjects in the laboratory after many tests to measure differences that people have in their reactions to empathy and stress.

MSTN – Gifted (CT)

You have a rare result found in only 8-10% of the population. Similar to people with CC, studies have shown that people with this variant tend to be able to build greater muscle mass and therefore greater peak power during muscle contraction.

People with this result can put on an extraordinary amount of muscle mass with the right exercise and nutritional program. Typical people in this category would be linebackers, power lifters and bodybuilders. Workout programs would include training programs that would be targeting athletic performance over fat loss or conditioning.

If you are among the 10% population and want to be really lean and thin you would want to focus on high intensity interval training vs. 8-10 reps of heavy compound movements.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The MSTN gene encodes the protein called myostatin. Myostatin is produced in muscle and controls muscle growth. With less myostatin, there will be significantly more muscle mass and those individuals will be stronger than normal. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with different amounts of muscle mass and the ability to produce peak power and increased strength. This gene is associated with your ability to build strength.

BDKRB2 – Adapt (CT)

You share a result with 40% of the population. Studies have shown that people like you have a harder time being good at endurance sports due to a genetic disadvantage in terms endurance and muscle efficiency due to lower blood flow. This is because you are more likely to reach peak heart rate faster than normal. People like you should break up your reps and don’t do long steady state cardio and instead replace with shorter high intensity intervals.

This gene works in conjunction with VO2 Max. For instance if you are gifted in oxygen uptake (VO2 max) but have a harder time moving oxygen to your muscles you will see an averaging out of your abilities. If you are adapt on VO2 Max and have this result you will likely experience difficulty in endurance activities that require sustained constant oxygen delivery to your muscles. This doesn’t mean you cant run a marathon but you may just need to do it slower to prevent your heart rate from being at the maximum.

People like you may benefit from wearing a heart rate monitor when you work out. People with this result should also try to maintain heart rates at or below 70% of their max heart beat range. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The BDKRB2 gene encodes for a protein called the bradykinin receptor that is involved in the control of blood pressure and the increased blood flow in our blood vessels. It is also associated with muscle contraction and the ability for cells to absorb fluid. Genetic polymorphisms related to the BDKRB2 gene have been shown to affect athletic endurance. Analysis determines if a person has increased endurance and muscle efficiency.

CLOCK – Normal (AA)

You are among 50% of the population and likely to be highly agreeable with a lower incidence of mental disorders. With this result, you are likely to be better at social interactions. This result is also associated with feeling a preference for more activity in the morning.

Agreeableness is one of the five broad dimensions of human personality and has been associated with variants in the CLOCK gene. This gene has a role in the circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is your body clock that responds to cues in your environment such as day/night cycles. Your biological clock regulates your sleep, emotion and behavior. Scientists have found abnormalities in the circadian rhythms in patients with mood disorders and those with alcohol and other drug use disorders. The CLOCK gene has also been found to interact with the OXTR gene which also contributes to your social behavior.

ADRB1 – Normal (CG)

People with this result are likely to have greater oxygen capacity and cardiac function and to demonstrate better endurance in long distance sports. People should do a 30 minute moderate intensity circuit rather than a 10 minute high intensity circuit. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB1 gene encodes a protein found in cardiac tissues and regulates heart function and metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB1 gene have been shown to affect a person’s resting heart rate. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced cardiovascular performance or is considered normal.

ESR1 – Adapt (GG)

You are in the rare category, among 10% of the population. With this result, you may be more at risk for suffering from migraine headaches.

Migraines can be caused by multiple factors, but scientists have found genetic factors to contribute to a person’s susceptibility to migraines. The ESR1 gene coding the estrogen receptor is one of the genes that scientists have found to be associated with migraine and migraine aura risk for both men and women.

TAS2R38 – Adapt (TT)

This type is found in 30 percent of the population. With this type, you may be unable to taste bitter foods.

The ability to taste foods that are bitter likely dates back to our ancestors to avoid ingesting toxic plants that could be hazardous to our health. However, we have since discovered health benefits in some of the foods that taste bitter to us (e.g. cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts, and collard greens). Genetic analysis can determine our ability to taste bitterness (and therefore likes and dislikes) in certain foods. If your results show that you are gifted in Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the Bitterness gene then you are a supertaster for bitter foods.

VEGF – Normal (GG)

This result is the most common found in the population. This gene has a role in blood vessel growth that is important during high levels of exertion and this common result means that people with this result have normal endurance and aerobic fitness.

People with this result would want to have a balanced program of exercise. Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The gene VEGF codes for the protein called vascular endothelial growth factor. VEGF is very important for blood vessel growth to support muscle health. The ability to increase the amount of blood supply during exercise will increase your maximal oxygen consumption and muscle performance. Genetic polymorphisms in VEGF are associated with endurance and recovery from intense exercise. This test is associated with higher aerobic exercise performance and greater endurance.

CYP1A2 – Gifted (AA)

You are among the 40 percent of people who are fast metabolizers. Your body may metabolize caffeine four times faster than slow metabolizers. This means that caffeine can have a stronger effect on athletic performance. If you are an adult that consumes caffeine, it is considered safe to do so in amounts smaller than 400mg per day (approximately 16-24 oz daily). If you use caffeine to enhance athletic output, studies have shown approximately 3mg of caffeine per kg of body weight consumed one hour before exercise may improve performance by 12 percent, especially in endurance events.

Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system, heart and respiratory system. Genetic analysis can determine if you are a fast or slow metabolizer of caffeine. Caffeine may have a longer-lasting effect on slow metabolizers, and may be unhealthy if consumed in large amounts. Fast metabolizers of caffeine process caffeine four times faster than slow metabolizers and may also benefit in athletic performance when following performance recommendations. Sources of caffeine: Coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, kola, guarana and some pain relievers.

EDN1 – Adapt (TT)

This is a rare result that is found in only 10% of the population, and can be associated with high blood pressure (hypertension). Studies have shown that people with this genotype may find that even with increased training, performance in power sports may not improve or be very difficult to achieve.

A good training program for an individual with this result would be to align with longer higher repetition workouts on alternate days it encouraged to do yoga or pilates exercises with more frequent rests between higher intensity workouts. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The EDN1 gene encodes for the protein endothelin 1 which is a protein found in blood vessels that functions to control your blood pressure. Genetic variations of EDN1 are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. This gene determines how effective training can be on improving your cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.

GDF5 – Gifted (GG)

This gene codes for a protein that is a growth factor and keeps your bones and joints strong. You have a result that is found in only 20% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this result are more likely to have stronger joints than people with AA or AG types.

Even though with this result joint injury risk may be lower its still advisable to be especially careful if you are gifted in any one or multiple endurance genes. Nutritional supplements can also be beneficial for joint health. Some examples of supplements shown in medical studies to be beneficial are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The GDF5 gene encodes the growth differentiation factor 5, which is part of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family and also known as BMP14. GDF5 has a strong role in bone and joint health. Variations in GDF5 are associated with osteoarthritis. This assessment determines risk associated with joint health and the risk of injury from intense exercise.

SCN9A – Adapt (CC)

You are very rare (10% of the population) and may be completely insensitive to pain. This can be dangerous as you may hurt yourself and not know that you have done so. However, there are multiple genes that contribute to our sensitivity to pain and your result needs to be taken together with the other pain sensitive genes.

Are you insensitive to pain? Sensing pain is important for our health. This gene codes for the voltage-gated sodium channel, Na(v)1.7 which is found in neurons that sense pain. If you have one form of this gene, you are more likely to be completely insensitive to pain. However, there are multiple genes that contribute to our sensitivity to pain.

ACTN3 – Normal (TC)

This genotype is found in 45% of the general population. With this genotype, a person has an intermediate number of fast-twitch muscles and therefore has the capacity for absorption and transmission of muscle force during rapid contraction, and the ability to promote growth of fast twitch muscle fibers, but with not as many fast twitch fibers as those with CC.

Fast twitch muscle fibers are responsible for quick movements such as punch, jump or a sudden burst of energy.

With this result you can take your training program into endurance or high impact sports. For a endurance targeted program you may be targeting activities such as biking, hiking, triathlons, rock climbing, cross country skiing and swimming. An ideal training program would be to consider yoga and pilates as strengthening exercises with higher reps of lower resistance or with lower weights.

For a more power sports program you may be targeting boxing, basketball, sprinting, football or other high output sports. For this type of training program consider lower repetitions and higher weight/resistance exercises. Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

This is the most studied fitness gene. The ACTN3 gene encodes for the protein alpha actinin-3 and this gene provides instructions for making a specific muscle protein that impacts the ability of skeletal muscles to produce force at a high velocity. This is crucial for success in sports requiring power and short bursts of speed (sprinting). Analysis determines if a person is likely to have enhanced performance in power and sprint activities or is considered normal.

TCF7L2 – Normal (CC)

You share a result common with 60% of the population. This gene has a role in sugar metabolism and with the CC genotype, people like you have normal sugar metabolism.

The gene TCF7L2 encodes for the protein called “transcription factor 7-like-2” protein that has a role in controlling blood sugar levels. Genetic polymorphisms in TCF7L2 are associated with increase incidence in diabetes and weight gain. This gene can make you more or less sensitive to sugar in your diet and make you prone to weight gain.

NMB – Normal (GG)

You are with the majority of the population (58%) who have this variant. The signals for fullness are normal and you don’t have a tendency for overeating with GG. It is recommended that you continue to eat a healthy, nutrient dense and balanced diet to meet your needs and goals to maintain a healthy weight and decrease risk of chronic disease.

Analysis of the NMB gene will reveal if an individual has the ability to receive the appropriate signals of “fullness” to indicate to stop eating (and therefore has a role in regaining weight over time). Studies have found that variants determine how soon you get full during eating.

FUT2 – Gifted (AA)

This is a rare result, about 15% of the population has AA. Research has shown that this result has naturally high levels of Vitamin B12 so you are not likely to suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency. You will likely get enough Vitamin B12 from the food you eat. You are also more likely to be resistant to certain infections.

Analysis of this gene uncovers if an individual is likely to have higher or lower levels of Vitamin B12. This important vitamin has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain, the nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the human body. B12 is most commonly found in animal products such as dairy, fish, poultry, or beef.

ADRB2 – Gifted (AA)

This result is found in 25% of the population. This gene functions in smooth muscle tissue such as heart and lungs. Studies have found an association with this result and lower BMI and increased VO2 max (maximal oxygen uptake), therefore you may have greater endurance. Studies have found this result associated with faster running times.

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB2 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), CNS, heart, kidney and muscle where they are involved in smooth muscle relaxation (e.g. bronchodilation). Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB2 gene have been shown to affect endurance and risk for obesity. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have higher endurance or reduced VO2 max (a measure of the maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use) and increased risk of obesity.

ADRB2 – Adapt (GG)

This result is found in 25% of the population. Studies have found that this result is associated with a higher BMI and lower V02 max, and therefore a propensity for less endurance and more power. People like this would want to focus on power move exercises. Short bursts with high intensity are the types of exercises you will want to focus on. Workouts that have 30 seconds of work followed by a minute of rest. Things such as box jumps, single leg bounding jumps.

Consider working with a Certified Personal Trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The ADRB2 gene encodes receptors located primarily in the central nervous system (CNS), CNS, heart, kidney and muscle where they are involved in smooth muscle relaxation (e.g. bronchodilation). Genetic polymorphisms related to the ADRB2 gene have been shown to affect endurance and risk for obesity. Analysis determines if a person is likely to have higher endurance or reduced VO2 max (a measure of the maximum volume of oxygen that an athlete can use) and increased risk of obesity.

ORIOA2 – Normal (AG)

40% of the population are AG. With this variation, you are less likely to think cilantro tastes like soap. This is particulary good news if you like Latin American and Asian cuisine, which often uses cilantro. As a herb, cilantro not only offers a sharp flavor but contains good amounts of antioxidants, essential oils and vitamins.

Cilantro is an herb that has a soapy aftertaste to those who are adverse to it, while other people enjoy it’s sharp flavor often used in Latin American and Asian cuisine. Whether you dislike the smell and flavor of cilantro varies greatly based on your genetic code. With this genetic analysis, it’s possible to determine a person’s genetic predisposition to enjoy eating cilantro.

IL-6 – Normal (GG)

This result is commonly found in 80% of the population. Studies have shown that people with this result may have lower levels of inflammation after active training. People with GG may recover from exertion faster than those with a CC or CG result. This result has been found also to be favored for sports requiring sprinting and power.

A person with this result could spend less time on stability and move directly into higher impact training.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs. Also consider a certified personal nutritionist to explore dietary changes to boost recovery rates in between workouts.

The IL-6 gene encodes the protein called interleukin-6 which is a pro-inflammatory cytokine. These inflammatory compounds such as IL-6 have an important role in repairing our bodies from inflammation caused by intense exercise. Variations in IL-6 are associated with our ability in power sports to recover from the exertion. This gene is associated with recovery from the inflammation after power sports.

ORIOA2 – Adapt (GG)

This is the rare variant type shared by 10% of the population. With GG, you are likely to dislike cilantro and likely to think cilantro has a soapy aftertaste. Be wary of Latin American and Asian cuisines which use cilantro most often. If you are looking for a cilantro substitute, try parsley or Thai basil.

Cilantro is an herb that has a soapy aftertaste to those who are adverse to it, while other people enjoy it’s sharp flavor often used in Latin American and Asian cuisine. Whether you dislike the smell and flavor of cilantro varies greatly based on your genetic code. With this genetic analysis, it’s possible to determine a person’s genetic predisposition to enjoy eating cilantro.

GC – Normal (TT)

You are similar to 60% of the population and are likely to have normal Vitamin D levels. The TT type is not known to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency. Follow guidelines for normal sun exposure for health and to maintain a normal Vitamin D level. It is still advised to speak with your Doctor about receiving the 25 (OH) D blood test to learn your Vitamin D levels.

Scientists have found that a variation in this gene is predictive for having an increased risk of low levels of Vitamin D. You may know Vitamin D as the vitamin that our skin cells produce from sunlight. A few foods naturally contain Vitamin D including salmon, tuna, and eggs. In the body, Vitamin D is essential in absorbing calcium and plays a large role in bone growth and remodeling, as well as immunity. Vitamin D levels are also known to be low when you live in a climate with little sun exposure, from a vegan/low-fat diet, and as we age.

FUT2 – Adapt (AG)

This result is found in 35% of the population and is associated with intermediate levels of Vitamin B12 levels in your blood. It is recommended to discuss your Vitamin B12 levels with your physician and discuss possible supplementation of B12.

Analysis of this gene uncovers if an individual is likely to have higher or lower levels of Vitamin B12. This important vitamin has a key role in the normal functioning of the brain, the nervous system, and the formation of red blood cells. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the human body. B12 is most commonly found in animal products such as dairy, fish, poultry, or beef.

KCTD10 – Adapt (CG)

This is the intermediate variant found in 38% of the population and you likely have intermediate LDL (bad cholesterol) levels. This genetic variation places the importance on following a heart healthy and exercise nutrition program to lower your risk of cardiovascular disease. This includes, but is not limited to, having a diet high in fiber, vegetables, fruits, beans, lean protein, healthy fats and whole grains, while limiting saturated fats found in high fat animal products, dietary cholesterol and processed foods items.

Your body’s cholesterol is found in two forms, the LDL (low density lipoprotein) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). LDL is considered “bad” cholesterol and the one that contributes the most to heart disease due to it’s contribution to plaque, which can clog arteries and make them less flexible. HDL is considered “good” cholesterol and helps keep the LDL levels in check by removing it from the arteries. Our levels of HDL are largely controlled by our genetic code and are revealed in this genetic analysis.

BCM01 – Adapt (AT)

You are among the 39% of the population with a reduced conversion of beta carotene to retinol. You may benefit from eating more foods rich in Vitamin A and may discuss with your doctor the use of a Vitamin A supplement (in the form of beta carotene or mixed carotenoids). Food sources of Vitamin A include carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver.

Analysis of this gene reveals if an individual has a tendency to have lower levels of Vitamin A in their body. Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that plays an important role in bone growth, vision, reproduction and for the maintenance of the immune system. Individuals that have a tendency toward lower levels of Vitamin A may choose to incorporate more food sources of Vitamin A, including carrots, kale, spinach, cantaloupe, apricots, mango, whole eggs, milk and liver, as well as choosing to supplement their diet with additional Vitamin A, as needed. It is important to note that Vitamin A can be toxic when consumed in excessive amounts. Preformed Vitamin A (beta carotene and mixed carotenoids) is much less toxic.

COL5a1 – Gifted (CC)

This result is found in 60% of the population. This gene codes for collagen which is a main protein found in bone, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Studies have shown that the CC variant is associated with less tendon elongation and strain, which means a lower risk of tendon injury (such as ACL injury).

Even though with this result joint injury risk may be lower its still advisable to be especially careful if you are gifted in any one or multiple endurance genes. Nutritional supplements can also be beneficial for joint health. Some examples of supplements shown in medical studies to be beneficial are chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid.

Maintaining proper posture during workouts and at rest can play a large role in joint health. If you are considering running make sure to choose shoes that correspond to the arches of your feet as well as the strike pattern of your foot such as overpronation, underpronation or neutral. Finally with footwear make sure that you check the compression factor of your shoes because worn shoes can cause stress on your weight bearing joints.

Consider working with a certified personal trainer and consult your physician before undertaking any new exercise programs.

The COL5a1 gene encodes for the protein called Collagen Type V that is the main protein found in bone. This protein is also found in tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that are an important part of our joints. Genetic polymorphisms related to COL5a1 are associated with endurance and joint health. The assessment determines if a person should consider preventive exercises to prevent trouble with their joints.

MC4R – Adapt (CT)

This variant is found in 40% of the population. Similar to CC, you are more likely to have a risk for obesity. It is recommended to work with a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist that can create a nutrition plan for you based on nutrient dense foods to meet your personal needs for a healthy weight.

Analysis of this gene can reveal if an individual is likely to have increased waist size, increased BMI (body mass index), and a higher incidence of insulin resistance. Mutations in this gene have been found to have the strongest association with childhood and adult obesity.

CYP1A2 – Normal (AC)

You are among about 45 percent who have both a slow and a fast copy of the variant. You are more similar to those with the CC variant and likely a slow metabolizer of caffeine. Slow metabolizers of caffeine may want to limit their caffeine intake to under 200mg of caffeine per day. Having a consistent higher intake of caffeine may increase symptoms of nervousness, increased heart rate, irritability, insomnia and possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the central nervous system, heart and respiratory system. Genetic analysis can determine if you are a fast or slow metabolizer of caffeine. Caffeine may have a longer-lasting effect on slow metabolizers, and may be unhealthy if consumed in large amounts. Fast metabolizers of caffeine process caffeine four times faster than slow metabolizers and may also benefit in athletic performance when following performance recommendations. Sources of caffeine: Coffee, tea, chocolate, energy drinks, kola, guarana and some pain relievers.

ORIOA2 – Normal (AA)

50% of the population have this type of variant. With AA, you are most likely to think cilantro tastes good. This is particulary good news if you like Latin American and Asian cuisine, which often uses cilantro. As a herb, cilantro not only offers a sharp flavor but contains good amounts of antioxidants, essential oils and vitamins.

Cilantro is an herb that has a soapy aftertaste to those who are adverse to it, while other people enjoy it’s sharp flavor often used in Latin American and Asian cuisine. Whether you dislike the smell and flavor of cilantro varies greatly based on your genetic code. With this genetic analysis, it’s possible to determine a person’s genetic predisposition to enjoy eating cilantro.

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